Research evidence indicates that formative assessment is one of the most effective ways of enhancing student learning. It is, however, difficult to implement successfully, principally because what is tested through summative assessment has such a powerful influence on teacher and student actions. This book scrutinizes the relationship between testing and learning from alternative perspectives to the dominant literature from the major Anglophone countries. It develops the notion of contextually grounded formative assessment practices by analyzing data from schools in the Confucian-heritage setting of Hong Kong. It explores questions such as:
• Under what circumstances do tests support or hinder student learning?
• How can teachers effectively prepare students for tests and appropriately follow up after tests?
• What are the key socio-cultural influences impacting on testing and student learning in the classroom?
• How do teachers change in their orientation towards assessment and what support do they require?
This text is a valuable resource for education students, professionals and researchers, policy-makers and curriculum developers.
Table of Contents
1. Potentials and Pitfalls in Assessment 2. Summative and Formative Assessment: Building Productive Relationships 3. Testing and Assessment: Selection, Learning and Social Control 4. Education and Assessment in Hong Kong 5. ‘Restricted’ and ‘Extended’ Formative Assessment: Towards Contextually Grounded Models 6. Test Follow-Up as a Formative Assessment Strategy 7. Peer Learning and Assessment 8. Teacher Change and Formative Assessment 9. Conclusions and Implications: Ways Forward for Formative Assessment Appendices
David Carless is Associate Professor of Education at the University of Hong Kong.
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"This book is well organized and clear so a reader can follow right along – and wants to do so."—Teachers College Record
"Taken as a whole, the book helps researchers and those working with teachers to work realistically and pragmatically in the socio-cultural contexts they are subjected to but also help to shape. It also illuminates the need to encourage teachers to ask critical questions about the nature of learning and engagement that formative and summative assessment encourages, and discourages, and the forms of skill and knowledge that assessment opens access to or denies." —Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice