1st Edition

Handbook of Molecular Gastronomy Scientific Foundations, Educational Practices, and Culinary Applications

    894 Pages 577 Color Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Handbook of Molecular Gastronomy: Scientific Foundations and Culinary Applications presents a unique overview of molecular gastronomy, the scientific discipline dedicated to the study of phenomena that occur during the preparation and consumption of dishes. It deals with the chemistry, biology and physics of food preparation, along with the physiology of food consumption. As such, it represents the first attempt at a comprehensive reference in molecular gastronomy, along with a practical guide, through selected examples, to molecular cuisine and the more recent applications named note by note cuisine. While several books already exist for a general audience, either addressing food science in general in a "light" way and/or dealing with modern cooking techniques and recipes, no book exists so far that encompasses the whole molecular gastronomy field, providing a strong interdisciplinary background in the physics, biology and chemistry of food and food preparation, along with good discussions on creativity and the art of cooking.


    • Gives A–Z coverage to the underlying science (physics, chemistry and biology) and technology, as well as all the key cooking issues (ingredients, tools and methods).

    • Encompasses the science and practice of molecular gastronomy in the most accessible and up-to-date reference available.

    • Contains a final section with unique recipes by famous chefs.

    The book is organized in three parts. The first and main part is about the scientific discipline of molecular and physical gastronomy; it is organized as an encyclopedia, with entries in alphabetical order, gathering the contributions of more than 100 authors, all leading scientists in food sciences, providing a broad overview of the most recent research in molecular gastronomy. The second part addresses educational applications of molecular gastronomy, from primary schools to universities. The third part provides some innovative recipes by chefs from various parts of the world.

    The authors have made a particular pedagogical effort in proposing several educational levels, from elementary introduction to deep scientific formalism, in order to satisfy the broadest possible audience (scientists and non-scientists). This new resource should be very useful to food scientists and chefs, as well as food and culinary science students and all lay people interested in gastronomy.


    Part I Scientific Foundations

    Acids in Foods and Perception of Sourness

    Christian Salles

    Anthocyanins in Food

    Véronique Cheynier

    Alcoholic Beverages: Production, Trends, Innovations

    Konstantin Bellut, Kieran M. Lynch and Elke K. Arendt

    Ash in the Kitchen

    Marta Ghebremedhin, Christine Schreiber, Bhagyashri Joshi, Andreas Rieger and Thomas A. Vilgis

    Baking: Laminated Bakery Products

    Roxane Detry, Christophe Blecker and Sabine Danthine

    Baking: Chemical Leaveners

    Linda A. Luck

    Baking: Injera – the Multi- Eyed Flat Bread

    Mahelet Girma, Sumaya M. Abdullahi and Benjamin L. Stottrup

    Baking: Viennoiserie – Laminated Pastry Production

    James A. Griffin

    Baking: How Does Starch Gelatinization Influence Texture?

    Anaïs Lavoisier

    Baking: Sourdough Bread

    Mark Traynor and Imran Ahmad

    Barbecue: The Chemistry behind Cooking on a Barbecue

    Florent Allais

    Bioactivity and Its Measurement

    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Browning: The Glycation and Maillard Reactions – Major Non- Enzymatic Browning Reactions in Food

    Frederic J. Tessier

    Canning: Appert and Food Canning

    Jean-​Christophe Augustin

    Capillarity in Action

    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Champagne Tasting from a Scientific Perspective

    Gérard Liger-​Belair, Clara Cilindre, Daniel Cordier, Guillaume Polidori, Fabien Beaumont and Thomas Séon

    Chantillys: The Cousins of Whipped Cream

    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Cheese: Hot Culinary Uses of Cheese

    Sébastien Roustel and John A. Hannon

    Chocolate: Chocolates from around the World, Simple Physics, Complex Flavour

    Bhagyashri L Joshi, Sarah Gindra and Thomas A. Vilgis

    Chocolate: Oral Processing of Chocolate – Successive Interplay of Sensory and Physicochemical Parameters

    Thomas A. Vilgis

    Coffee Preparation – from Roasted Beans to Beverage

    Laura Febvay and Hervé This vo Kientza

    Colour: Natural Pigments in Foods and Their Technical Uses

    Juan Valverde


    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Cooking: Culinary Precisions and Robustness of Recipes

    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Cryogenics in the Kitchen

    Peter Barham

    Dairy: Milk Gels – a Gastrophysics View

    Judith Hege, Marta Ghebremedhin, Bhagyashri L. Joshi, Christine Schreiber, H.-​C. Gill and Thomas A. Vilgis

    Dairy: Culinary Uses of Milk, Butter and Ice Cream

    Alan L. Kelly and David S. Waldron

    Dairy: Ginger Milk Curd

    Martin Lersch


    José M. Aguilera

    Dispersed System Formalism

    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Distillation: The Behaviour of Volatile Compounds during Distillation of Hydro- Alcoholic Solutions and during Hydro- DistillationMartine Esteban-.DeclouxEggs: Let Us Have an Egg

    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Emulsions: Emulsified Systems in Food

    Markus Ketomäki, Trivikram Nallamilli, Christi Schreiber and Thomas A. Vilgis

    Emulsions and Foams: Ostwald Ripening and Disproportionation in Practice

    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Emulsions: Lecithin

    Elzbieta Kozakiewicz and Daniel Cossuta

    Emulsions: Emulsions and Surfactants in the Kitchen

    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Essential Oils

    Eric Angelini and Laure Dziuba

    Essential Oils: How to Safely Use Essential Oils

    Eric Angelini and Laure Dziuba


    Hervé This vo Kientza


    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Fats and Oils: Physicochemical Properties of Edible Oils and Fats

    Sabine Danthine

    Fats and Oils: From Fat Droplets in Plant Seeds to Novel Foods

    Juan C. Zambrano, Behic Mert and Thomas A. Vilgis

    Fats and Oils: Oxidation of Dietary Lipids

    Luc Eveleigh

    Fats and Oils: Extra Virgin Olive Oil in Cooking – Molecular Keys for Traditional and Modern Mediterranean Gastronomy

    Raffaele Sacchi

    Fermentation: Kimchi

    Weon-​Sun Shin

    Fermentation: Fermenting Flavours with Yeast

    Angela M. Coral Medina and John P. Morrissey

    Fermentation: A Short Scientific and Culinary Overview of Kefir

    Christophe Lavelle and Jean-​Baptiste Boulé

    Filtration Membranes for Food Processing and Fractionation

    Marie-​Laure Lameloise

    Food Matrices and Matrix Effect in the Kitchen

    José M. Aguilera and Hervé This vo Kientza

    Food Pairing: Is It Really about Science?

    Hervé This vo Kientza and Christophe Lavelle

    Freeze- Drying

    Yrjö H. Roos

    Foams: Pickering Edible Oil Foam – Toward New Food Products

    Anne-​Laure Fameau


    Franco Pedreschi

    Gastrophysics: A New Scientific Approach to Eating

    Charles Spence


    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Heat Transfer in Culinary Sciences

    Denis Flick

    Hydrocolloid Usages as Gelling and Emulsifying Agents for Culinary and Industrial Applications

    Rachel Edwards-​Stuart and Reine Barbar

    Imaging Foodstuffs and Products of Culinary Transformations

    Mathias Porsmose Clausen, Morten Christensen and Ole G. Mouritsen

    Meat: Meat Tenderness and the Impact of Cooking

    Jean-​François Hocquette and Alain Kondjoyan

    Meat: Heat Transfer in Meat

    Douglas Baldwin

    Meat: Reduction of Nitrate and Nitrite Salts in Meat Products – What Are the Consequences

    and Possible Solutions?

    Régine Talon and Sabine Leroy

    Microwave Heating and Modern Cuisine

    Alan L. Kelly and Hervé This vo Kientza

    Mineral Ions and Cooking

    Christian Salles

    Osmosis in the Kitchen

    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Pasta: Durum Wheat Proteins – a Key Macronutrient for Pasta Qualities

    Coline Martin, Marie-​Hélène Morel and Bernard Cuq

    Pasteurization in the Kitchen

    Gabriela Precup and Dan-​Cristian Vodnar

    Plating: The Science of Plating

    Charles Spence

    Proteins and Proteases

    Linda A. Luck and Alan L. Kelly

    Puddings: The Secret of the Rice Pudding

    Martin Lersch


    Laura Febvay and Hervé This vo Kientza

    Salt: When Should Salt Be Added to Meat Being Grilled?

    Hervé This vo Kientza, Marie-​Paule Pardo and Rolande Ollitrault


    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Sauces: Hollandaise Sauce

    Guro Helgesdotter Rognså

    Sauces and Purées: The Underside of Applesauce

    Cassandre Leverrier

    Seaweeds: Phycogastronomy – the Culinary Science of Seaweeds

    Ole G. Mouritsen

    Size Reduction

    José M. Aguilera

    Smoked Foods

    Jane K. Parker and Alice Pontin

    Sous Vide Cooking

    Douglas Baldwin


    Linda A. Luck

    Squid: Gastrophysics of Squid – from Gastronomy to Science and back again

    Ole G. Mouritsen, Charlotte Vinther Schmidt, Peter Lionet Faxholm and Mathias Porsmose Clausen

    Sugars: Soft Caramel and Sucre à la Crème – an Undergraduate Experiment about Sugar Crystallization

    Irem Altan, Patrick Charbonneau and Justine de Valicourt

    Sugars: Sugar (and Its Substitutes) in Pastries

    Anne Cazor and Ramon Morató

    Sugars: Erythritol– Sucrose Mixtures out of Equilibrium – Exciting Thermodynamics in the Mouth

    Hannah M. Hartge, Birgitta I. Zielbauer and Thomas A. Vilgis

    Sugars: Intramolecular Dehydration of Hexoses

    Marie-Charlotte Belhomme, Stéphanie Castex and Arnaud Haudrechy

    Taste and Sound

    Bruno A. Mesz

    Temporal Domination of Sensation: When Building Dishes, Let’s Take Temporality into Account

    Pascal Schlich

    Texture: The Physics of Mouthfeel – Spreadable Food and Inulin Particle Gels

    Thomas A. Vilgis

    Texture: How Texture Makes Flavour

    Ole G. Mouritsen

    Texture: Tsukemono – the Art and Science of Preparing Crunchy Vegetables

    Ole G. Mouritsen

    Thickeners: Cellulose and Its Derivatives

    Rachel Edwards-​Stuart

    3D Printing of Food

    Megan M. Ross, Róisín M. Burke and Alan L. Kelly

    Umami: The Molecular Science of Umami Synergy

    Ole G. Mouritsen

    Part II Educational Practices

    The Right Words for Improving Communication in Food Science, Food Technology, and between Food Science and Technology and a Broader Audience

    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Experimental Flavour Workshops

    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Teaching Argumentation and Inquiry through Culinary Claims

    Erik Fooladi

    Cooking and Science Workshops: The "Soft of the World", Gelling Agents

    Pere Castells

    Culinary Sciences for the Enhancement of the Public Understanding of Science

    Ole G. Mouritsen

    "Science and Cooking Activities" for Secondary School Students

    Marie-​Claude Feore, Laure Fort, Marie-​Blanche Mauhourat and Hervé This vo Kientza

    How to Reduce Oil in French Fries: A Student Experiment

    Hervé This vo Kientza

    An Educational Satellite Project around the Scientific Elucidation of Culinary Precisions in Lebanon and in the Middle East

    Reine Barbar, Jean-​Marie Malbec, Christophe Lavelle and Hervé This vo Kientza

    Bon Appétit, Marie Curie! A Stanford University Introductory Science of Cooking Course

    Markus W. Covert and Imanol Arrieta-​Ibarra

    Molecular Gastronomy in Science Education and Science Communication at the National University of Singapore

    Linda Sellou and Lau Shi Yun

    Molecular Gastronomy: A Universal Portal to the Molecular Sciences

    Patricia B. O’Hara

    Heat Transfer in the Kitchen – Exercises

    Manuel Combes

    Ionic Diffusion in Spherified Calcium Alginate Gels: A Laboratory Experiment

    Lorenzo Soprani, Lara Querciagrossa, Silvia Cristofaro, Luca Muccioli, Silvia Orlandi, Elena Strocchi,

    Alberto Arcioni and Roberto Berardi

    Simple Calculations Based on Cooking

    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Teaching and Cooking with Culinary Teachers

    Christophe Lavelle

    The Monthly INRAE- AgroParisTech Seminars on Molecular Gastronomy

    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Part III Culinary Applications

    New Greek Cuisine

    Georgianna Hiliadaki and Nikos Roussos

    3D Printed Note by Note Recipe: Soya Lobster Prototype

    Róisín M. Burke

    Cooking (with) Olive Oil

    Christophe Lavelle

    Cooking for the Elderly

    Christophe Lavelle

    Culinary Constructivism and Note by Note Cooking

    Pierre Gagnaire


    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Note by Note Recipes for a Press Conference and Tasting Organized at ITHQ, 2012

    Erik Ayala-​Bribiesca and Ismael Osorio

    Using Liquid Nitrogen to Prepare Ice Creams in the Restaurant

    Christophe Lavelle and Hervé This vo Kientza with chefs André Daguin, Noël Gutrin and Philippe Labbé

    A Note by Note Traditional Chinese Dinner Created and Served in Singapore

    Kelly Lee, Aaron Goh, Tony Choo, Nicolas Vergnole, Gn Ying Wei and Tais Berenstein

    Greek Diracs

    Makis Kalossakas and Nicolas Nikolakopoulos

    An Eclipse Dish

    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Modern Swiss Cooking

    Denis Martin

    How Do Eggs Coagulate?

    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Vegetable Salad

    Jean Chauvel


    Hervé This vo Kientza

    Waiter! There Is Garlic in My Meringue!

    César Vega

    Lobster and Juniper

    David Toutain

    Molecular Cooking

    Róisín M. Burke and Pauline Danaher

    Note by Note Cooking and Note by Note Cuisine

    Hervé This vo Kientza and Róisín M. Burke


    Sasa Hasic

    The Raspberry Pear Viennoiserie

    James A. Griffin

    Molecular Mixology: Welcome Coffee, a Cocktail with Ten Layers

    Hervé This vo Kientza and Pierre Gagnaire

    Cube of "Chicken- Carrot" with Chips of "Basil- Lemon"

    Pasquale Altomonte and Dao Nguyen

    Some of the Easiest Note by Note Recipes Served at Senses Restaurant

    Andrea Camastra

    The Forest Floor

    Sophie Dalton

    A Note by Note Macaron

    Julien Binz

    Note by Note Cooking

    Michael Pontif

    Note by Note Sushis

    Guillaume Siegler

    Slowly Cooked Lamb Neck with Fermented Flour Pancakes, Sunchoke Puree and Beer Glaze

    Alex Tsionitis


    Christophe Lavelle, Herve This, Alan L. Kelly, Roisin Burke