Handbook of Surface and Nanometrology: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Handbook of Surface and Nanometrology

2nd Edition

By David J. Whitehouse

CRC Press

1,000 pages | 1303 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781420082012
pub: 2010-12-20
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429140693
pub: 2010-12-20
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Since the publication of the first edition, miniaturization and nanotechnology have become inextricably linked to traditional surface geometry and metrology. This interdependence of scales has had profound practical implications.

Updated and expanded to reflect many new developments, Handbook of Surface and Nanometrology, Second Edition determines how the reduction in scale of size from macro to nano has affected all aspects of surface use and measurement. The book discusses how this shift has extended through characterization, standardization, manufacture, and performance. With nanotechnology now permeating the text, this edition covers new methods of production and measurement as well as new performance requirements.

Described as the father of digital metrology by the American Society for Precision Engineering, author David J. Whitehouse explores the range of surface size scales—macro, micro, nano, atomic, and combinations of these. He examines traditional, structured, patterned, and free-form surfaces, emphasizing the growing need to understand the behavior of multiple surfaces.

Still the definitive reference in the field, the second edition of this handbook continues to provide in-depth, extensive coverage of the engineering, physics, materials, mathematics, and computing involved in surface metrology and nanometrology. Nothing concerning current surface geometry escapes inclusion or scrutiny in this book.


Praise for the First Edition

Handbook of Surface and Nanometrology contains a wealth of information for both practical and research engineers. For Taylor Hobson, the volume epitomises the nature of the art of surface metrology and instrument engineering, as could only be recorded through a lifetime of dedication to the subject. This book will give both guidance and food for thought for anyone interested in the subject at whatever level.

—Bruce Wilson, Taylor Hobson

The book is very useful to the colleagues of my Institute. It will be one of the best books in our library.

—Professor Yuri Chugui

Table of Contents

Introduction—Surface and Nanometrology


Surface Metrology

Background to Surface Metrology


Book Structure


The Nature of Surfaces

Surface Geometry Assessment and Parameters



Errors of Form

Characterization of Structured and Free Form Surfaces

Characterization of Defects on the Surface


Processing, Operations, and Simulations

Digital Methods

Discrete (Digital) Properties of Random Surfaces

Digital Form of Statistical Analysis Parameters

Digital Estimation of References for Surface Metrology

Algorithms and Mathematical Techniques

Basic Concepts in Linear Programming

Fourier Transforms and the Fast Fourier Transform

Transformations in Surface Metrology

Space–Frequency Functions

Surface Generation

Atomistic Considerations and Simulations


Measurement Techniques


Measurement Systems Stylus—Micro

Measuring Instruments Stylus—Nano/Atomic Scale

Optical Techniques

Capacitance and Other Techniques

Electron Microscopy, Photon Microscopy, Raman Spectrometry

Comparison of Techniques—General Summary

Some Design Considerations



Nature of Errors

Basic Error Theory

Propagation of Errors

Statistical Tests for Surface Metrology

Uncertainty in Instruments—Calibration in General

The Calibration of Stylus and Other Instruments

Calibration of Form Instruments

Variability of Surface Parameters

Gps System—International and National Standards

Specification for CAD and on Drawings


Surfaces and Manufacture


Manufacturing Processes


Abrasive Processes

Unconventional Processes

Forming Processes

Effect of Scale of Size in Manufacture: Macro to Nano to Atomic Processes

Structured Surface Manufacture

Manufacture of Free-Form Surfaces

Mathematical Processing of Manufacture-Finite Element Analysis (Fe), Md, Nurbs

The Subsurface and the Interface

Surface Integrity

Surface Geometry—A Fingerprint of Manufacture

Surface Finish Effects in Manufacture of Microchip Electronic Components

Discussion and Conclusions

Surface Geometry and Its Importance in Function


Two-Body Interaction—The Static Situation Macro to Nanoscale, Contact, Adhesion Corrosion

Two-Body Interactions—Dynamic Behavior Macro to Nanoscale, Friction, Wear, Lubrication

One-Body Interactions— Optical Scatter, Diffraction

System Function Multi-Surfaces Assembly



Surface Geometry, Scale of Size Effects, Nanometrology


Effect of Scale of Size on Surface Geometry

Scale of Size, Surface Geometry, and Function

Scale of Size and Surfaces in Manufacture

Nano Instrumentation

Operation and Design Considerations

Standards, Traceability, and Uncertainty at the Nanoscale

Measurement of Typical Nanofeatures

Measuring Length to Nanoscale with Interferometers and Other Devices

Nano Geometry in Macro Situations

Discussion and Conclusions

General Comments



Processing, Operations, and Simulations

Measurement Techniques

Traceability Standardization Uncertainty

Surfaces and Manufacture

Surface Geometry and Performance





References appear at the end of each chapter.

About the Author

Regarded as one of the world’s top authorities on surface and nanometrology, David J. Whitehouse is professor emeritus of engineering science at the University of Warwick, where he was chief scientist in the School of Engineering. He has also been a consultant to numerous organizations, such as Rolls Royce, Taylor Hobson, Kodak, Unilever, General Motors, Caterpillar, 3M, Toshiba Japan, UBM Germany, and the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment. He has published 5 books and more than 250 technical papers, holds 23 patents, and was founding editor of the first peer-reviewed international journal on nanoscale science and technology, Nanotechnology. Professor Whitehouse has been a recipient of many awards, including the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Society for Precision Engineering, the Champion of Metrology award from the National Physical Laboratory, and the Commemorative Medallion of the Mendeleev Institute of Metrology.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Physics