2nd Edition

Handbook of Surface and Nanometrology

By David J. Whitehouse Copyright 2011
    1000 Pages 1303 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

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    Since the publication of the first edition, miniaturization and nanotechnology have become inextricably linked to traditional surface geometry and metrology. This interdependence of scales has had profound practical implications.

    Updated and expanded to reflect many new developments, Handbook of Surface and Nanometrology, Second Edition determines how the reduction in scale of size from macro to nano has affected all aspects of surface use and measurement. The book discusses how this shift has extended through characterization, standardization, manufacture, and performance. With nanotechnology now permeating the text, this edition covers new methods of production and measurement as well as new performance requirements.

    Described as the father of digital metrology by the American Society for Precision Engineering, author David J. Whitehouse explores the range of surface size scales—macro, micro, nano, atomic, and combinations of these. He examines traditional, structured, patterned, and free-form surfaces, emphasizing the growing need to understand the behavior of multiple surfaces.

    Still the definitive reference in the field, the second edition of this handbook continues to provide in-depth, extensive coverage of the engineering, physics, materials, mathematics, and computing involved in surface metrology and nanometrology. Nothing concerning current surface geometry escapes inclusion or scrutiny in this book.

    Introduction—Surface and Nanometrology
    Surface Metrology
    Background to Surface Metrology
    Book Structure

    The Nature of Surfaces
    Surface Geometry Assessment and Parameters
    Errors of Form
    Characterization of Structured and Free Form Surfaces
    Characterization of Defects on the Surface

    Processing, Operations, and Simulations
    Digital Methods
    Discrete (Digital) Properties of Random Surfaces
    Digital Form of Statistical Analysis Parameters
    Digital Estimation of References for Surface Metrology
    Algorithms and Mathematical Techniques
    Basic Concepts in Linear Programming
    Fourier Transforms and the Fast Fourier Transform
    Transformations in Surface Metrology
    Space–Frequency Functions
    Surface Generation
    Atomistic Considerations and Simulations

    Measurement Techniques
    Measurement Systems Stylus—Micro
    Measuring Instruments Stylus—Nano/Atomic Scale
    Optical Techniques
    Capacitance and Other Techniques
    Electron Microscopy, Photon Microscopy, Raman Spectrometry
    Comparison of Techniques—General Summary
    Some Design Considerations

    Nature of Errors
    Basic Error Theory
    Propagation of Errors
    Statistical Tests for Surface Metrology
    Uncertainty in Instruments—Calibration in General
    The Calibration of Stylus and Other Instruments
    Calibration of Form Instruments
    Variability of Surface Parameters
    Gps System—International and National Standards
    Specification for CAD and on Drawings

    Surfaces and Manufacture
    Manufacturing Processes
    Abrasive Processes
    Unconventional Processes
    Forming Processes
    Effect of Scale of Size in Manufacture: Macro to Nano to Atomic Processes
    Structured Surface Manufacture
    Manufacture of Free-Form Surfaces
    Mathematical Processing of Manufacture-Finite Element Analysis (Fe), Md, Nurbs
    The Subsurface and the Interface
    Surface Integrity
    Surface Geometry—A Fingerprint of Manufacture
    Surface Finish Effects in Manufacture of Microchip Electronic Components
    Discussion and Conclusions

    Surface Geometry and Its Importance in Function
    Two-Body Interaction—The Static Situation Macro to Nanoscale, Contact, Adhesion Corrosion
    Two-Body Interactions—Dynamic Behavior Macro to Nanoscale, Friction, Wear, Lubrication
    One-Body Interactions— Optical Scatter, Diffraction
    System Function Multi-Surfaces Assembly

    Surface Geometry, Scale of Size Effects, Nanometrology
    Effect of Scale of Size on Surface Geometry
    Scale of Size, Surface Geometry, and Function
    Scale of Size and Surfaces in Manufacture
    Nano Instrumentation
    Operation and Design Considerations
    Standards, Traceability, and Uncertainty at the Nanoscale
    Measurement of Typical Nanofeatures
    Measuring Length to Nanoscale with Interferometers and Other Devices
    Nano Geometry in Macro Situations
    Discussion and Conclusions

    General Comments
    Processing, Operations, and Simulations
    Measurement Techniques
    Traceability Standardization Uncertainty
    Surfaces and Manufacture
    Surface Geometry and Performance



    References appear at the end of each chapter.


    Regarded as one of the world’s top authorities on surface and nanometrology, David J. Whitehouse is professor emeritus of engineering science at the University of Warwick, where he was chief scientist in the School of Engineering. He has also been a consultant to numerous organizations, such as Rolls Royce, Taylor Hobson, Kodak, Unilever, General Motors, Caterpillar, 3M, Toshiba Japan, UBM Germany, and the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment. He has published 5 books and more than 250 technical papers, holds 23 patents, and was founding editor of the first peer-reviewed international journal on nanoscale science and technology, Nanotechnology. Professor Whitehouse has been a recipient of many awards, including the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Society for Precision Engineering, the Champion of Metrology award from the National Physical Laboratory, and the Commemorative Medallion of the Mendeleev Institute of Metrology.

    Praise for the First Edition
    Handbook of Surface and Nanometrology
    contains a wealth of information for both practical and research engineers. For Taylor Hobson, the volume epitomises the nature of the art of surface metrology and instrument engineering, as could only be recorded through a lifetime of dedication to the subject. This book will give both guidance and food for thought for anyone interested in the subject at whatever level.
    —Bruce Wilson, Taylor Hobson

    The book is very useful to the colleagues of my Institute. It will be one of the best books in our library.
    —Professor Yuri Chugui