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2nd Edition

Handbook of Surface and Nanometrology




ISBN 9781420082012
Published December 20, 2010 by CRC Press
1000 Pages - 1303 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Since the publication of the first edition, miniaturization and nanotechnology have become inextricably linked to traditional surface geometry and metrology. This interdependence of scales has had profound practical implications.

Updated and expanded to reflect many new developments, Handbook of Surface and Nanometrology, Second Edition determines how the reduction in scale of size from macro to nano has affected all aspects of surface use and measurement. The book discusses how this shift has extended through characterization, standardization, manufacture, and performance. With nanotechnology now permeating the text, this edition covers new methods of production and measurement as well as new performance requirements.

Described as the father of digital metrology by the American Society for Precision Engineering, author David J. Whitehouse explores the range of surface size scales—macro, micro, nano, atomic, and combinations of these. He examines traditional, structured, patterned, and free-form surfaces, emphasizing the growing need to understand the behavior of multiple surfaces.

Still the definitive reference in the field, the second edition of this handbook continues to provide in-depth, extensive coverage of the engineering, physics, materials, mathematics, and computing involved in surface metrology and nanometrology. Nothing concerning current surface geometry escapes inclusion or scrutiny in this book.

Table of Contents

Introduction—Surface and Nanometrology
General
Surface Metrology
Background to Surface Metrology
Nanometrology
Book Structure

Characterization
The Nature of Surfaces
Surface Geometry Assessment and Parameters
Characterization
Waviness
Errors of Form
Characterization of Structured and Free Form Surfaces
Characterization of Defects on the Surface
Discussion

Processing, Operations, and Simulations
Digital Methods
Discrete (Digital) Properties of Random Surfaces
Digital Form of Statistical Analysis Parameters
Digital Estimation of References for Surface Metrology
Algorithms and Mathematical Techniques
Basic Concepts in Linear Programming
Fourier Transforms and the Fast Fourier Transform
Transformations in Surface Metrology
Space–Frequency Functions
Surface Generation
Atomistic Considerations and Simulations
Summary

Measurement Techniques
Background
Measurement Systems Stylus—Micro
Measuring Instruments Stylus—Nano/Atomic Scale
Optical Techniques
Capacitance and Other Techniques
Electron Microscopy, Photon Microscopy, Raman Spectrometry
Comparison of Techniques—General Summary
Some Design Considerations

Standardization-Traceability-Uncertainty
Introduction
Nature of Errors
Basic Error Theory
Propagation of Errors
Statistical Tests for Surface Metrology
Uncertainty in Instruments—Calibration in General
The Calibration of Stylus and Other Instruments
Calibration of Form Instruments
Variability of Surface Parameters
Gps System—International and National Standards
Specification for CAD and on Drawings
Summary

Surfaces and Manufacture
Introduction
Manufacturing Processes
Cutting
Abrasive Processes
Unconventional Processes
Forming Processes
Effect of Scale of Size in Manufacture: Macro to Nano to Atomic Processes
Structured Surface Manufacture
Manufacture of Free-Form Surfaces
Mathematical Processing of Manufacture-Finite Element Analysis (Fe), Md, Nurbs
The Subsurface and the Interface
Surface Integrity
Surface Geometry—A Fingerprint of Manufacture
Surface Finish Effects in Manufacture of Microchip Electronic Components
Discussion and Conclusions

Surface Geometry and Its Importance in Function
Introduction
Two-Body Interaction—The Static Situation Macro to Nanoscale, Contact, Adhesion Corrosion
Two-Body Interactions—Dynamic Behavior Macro to Nanoscale, Friction, Wear, Lubrication
One-Body Interactions— Optical Scatter, Diffraction
System Function Multi-Surfaces Assembly
Discussion
Conclusions

Surface Geometry, Scale of Size Effects, Nanometrology
Introduction
Effect of Scale of Size on Surface Geometry
Scale of Size, Surface Geometry, and Function
Scale of Size and Surfaces in Manufacture
Nano Instrumentation
Operation and Design Considerations
Standards, Traceability, and Uncertainty at the Nanoscale
Measurement of Typical Nanofeatures
Measuring Length to Nanoscale with Interferometers and Other Devices
Nano Geometry in Macro Situations
Discussion and Conclusions

General Comments
Introduction
Characterization
Processing, Operations, and Simulations
Measurement Techniques
Traceability Standardization Uncertainty
Surfaces and Manufacture
Surface Geometry and Performance
Nanometrology
Overview

Glossary

Index

References appear at the end of each chapter.

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Author(s)

Biography

Regarded as one of the world’s top authorities on surface and nanometrology, David J. Whitehouse is professor emeritus of engineering science at the University of Warwick, where he was chief scientist in the School of Engineering. He has also been a consultant to numerous organizations, such as Rolls Royce, Taylor Hobson, Kodak, Unilever, General Motors, Caterpillar, 3M, Toshiba Japan, UBM Germany, and the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment. He has published 5 books and more than 250 technical papers, holds 23 patents, and was founding editor of the first peer-reviewed international journal on nanoscale science and technology, Nanotechnology. Professor Whitehouse has been a recipient of many awards, including the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Society for Precision Engineering, the Champion of Metrology award from the National Physical Laboratory, and the Commemorative Medallion of the Mendeleev Institute of Metrology.

Reviews

Praise for the First Edition
Handbook of Surface and Nanometrology
contains a wealth of information for both practical and research engineers. For Taylor Hobson, the volume epitomises the nature of the art of surface metrology and instrument engineering, as could only be recorded through a lifetime of dedication to the subject. This book will give both guidance and food for thought for anyone interested in the subject at whatever level.
—Bruce Wilson, Taylor Hobson

The book is very useful to the colleagues of my Institute. It will be one of the best books in our library.
—Professor Yuri Chugui