1st Edition

Handbook of X-ray Imaging Physics and Technology

Edited By Paolo Russo Copyright 2018
    1419 Pages 1315 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

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    Containing chapter contributions from over 130 experts, this unique publication is the first handbook dedicated to the physics and technology of X-ray imaging, offering extensive coverage of the field. This highly comprehensive work is edited by one of the world’s leading experts in X-ray imaging physics and technology and has been created with guidance from a Scientific Board containing respected and renowned scientists from around the world.

    The book's scope includes 2D and 3D X-ray imaging techniques from soft-X-ray to megavoltage energies, including computed tomography, fluoroscopy, dental imaging and small animal imaging, with several chapters dedicated to breast imaging techniques. 2D and 3D industrial imaging is incorporated, including imaging of artworks. Specific attention is dedicated to techniques of phase contrast X-ray imaging.

    The approach undertaken is one that illustrates the theory as well as the techniques and the devices routinely used in the various fields. Computational aspects are fully covered, including 3D reconstruction algorithms, hard/software phantoms, and computer-aided diagnosis. Theories of image quality are fully illustrated. Historical, radioprotection, radiation dosimetry, quality assurance and educational aspects are also covered.

    This handbook will be suitable for a very broad audience, including graduate students in medical physics and biomedical engineering; medical physics residents; radiographers; physicists and engineers in the field of imaging and non-destructive industrial testing using X-rays; and scientists interested in understanding and using X-ray imaging techniques.

    The handbook's editor, Dr. Paolo Russo, has over 30 years’ experience in the academic teaching of medical physics and X-ray imaging research. He has authored several book chapters in the field of X-ray imaging, is Editor-in-Chief of an international scientific journal in medical physics, and has responsibilities in the publication committees of international scientific organizations in medical physics.


    • Comprehensive coverage of the use of X-rays both in medical radiology and industrial testing
    • The first handbook published to be dedicated to the physics and technology of X-rays
    • Handbook edited by world authority, with contributions from experts in each field

    PART 1: Basic physical and technological aspects

    Chapter 1: Basic physics of X-ray interactions in matter

    Chapter 2: Xray tube physics and technology

    Chapter 3: X-ray generators

    Chapter 4: Carbon Nanotube Based Field Emission X-ray Technology

    Chapter 5: Technology of Miniature X-Ray Tubes

    Chapter 6: Technology of pyroelectric X-ray tubes

    Chapter 7: History of X-Ray Tubes

    Chapter 8: Synchrotron radiation x-ray sources for radiography and tomography

    Chapter 9: X-ray shutters

    Chapter 10: Calculation of x-ray spectra

    Chapter 11: Radiochromic film dosimetry for radiology

    Chapter 12: Computed Radiography 

    Chapter 13: Photon Counting Detectors for X-ray imaging

    Chapter 14: Image Quality

    Chapter 15: Image quality in attenuation based and phase contrast based X-ray imaging

    Chapter 16: Inverse Compton Scattering X-ray sources

    PART 2: X-ray Radiography and Fluoroscopy

    Chapter 17: Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen - The discovery of X-rays and the creation of a new medical profession

    Chapter 18: History of Radiology

    Chapter 19: Digital Mammography

    Chapter 20: Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    Chapter 21: Fluoroscopy: physics and technology

    Chapter 22: Dental radiography

    Chapter 23: Clinical mammographic and tomosynthesis units

    Chapter 24: Physical image quality evaluation of x-ray detectors for digital radiography and mammography

    Chapter 25: Mammography, breast tomosynthesis and risk of radiation-induced breast cancer

    Chapter 26: Clinical radiographic units

    Chapter 27: Clinical Fluoroscopy units

    Chapter 28: Physical Basis of X-ray Breast Imaging

    Chapter 29: Radiation dose in X-ray mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis

    Chapter 30: Industrial Radiography

    Chapter 31: Forensic Radiology

    PART 3: X-ray Computed Tomography

    Chapter 32: X-ray Computed Tomography for diagnostic imaging – from single-slice to multi-slice

    Chapter 33: Analytical reconstruction methods in X-ray CT

    Chapter 34: Iterative reconstruction methods in X-ray CT

    Historical image gallery

    Chapter 35: X-ray Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Chapter 36: Small Animal X-ray Computed Tomography

    Chapter 37: Quality Assurance of X-ray Computer Tomography

    Chapter 38: Radiation Dose in X-ray Computed Tomography

    Chapter 39: Dual energy X-ray computed tomography

    Chapter 40: Soft x-ray tomography: techniques and applications

    Chapter 41: 4-D X-ray Computed Tomography

    Chapter 42: Dental and Maxillofacial Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Chapter 43: High Speed X-ray computed tomography

    Chapter 44: Kilovoltage and Megavoltage Imaging in Radiotherapy

    Chapter 45: Industrial X-ray computed tomography

    Chapter 46: Industrial X-ray computed tomography scanners

    Chapter 47: Dimensional metrology for industrial Computed Tomography

    Chapter 48: Influence of scatter in X-ray imaging and scatter correction methods for industrial applications

    PART 4: Phase-contrast X-ray imaging and other aspects

    Chapter 49: Theory of X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Chapter 50: Non-interferometric techniques for X-ray phase-contrast biomedical imaging

    Chapter 51: X-ray phase-contrast mammography

    Chapter 52: X-ray phase contrast tomosynthesis imaging

    Chapter 53: Crystal analyser-based X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging

    Chapter 54: X-Ray scattering: analytical applications and imaging

    Chapter 55: Tissue Substitute Materials for Diagnostic X-ray Imaging

    Chapter 56: Phantoms for image quality and dose assessment

    Chapter 57: Software phantoms for X-ray radiography and tomography

    Chapter 58: Radiography and Computed Tomography for Works of Art

    Chapter 59: Computer Aided Diagnosis for X-ray imaging

    Chapter 60: Computer analysis of mammograms

    Chapter 61: Databases for mammography

    Chapter 62: Computer analysis of CT images for lung nodule detection

    Chapter 63: Display Optimization & Human Factors

    Chapter 64: Display for Medical Imaging and DICOM Grayscale Standard Display Function Fundamentals

    Chapter 65: Quality Control of Medical Imaging Displays

    Chapter 66: Radiation protection issues in X-ray radiology, fluoroscopy and computed tomography

    Chapter 67: Educational aspects in radiography physics and technology

    Chapter 68: Tables of X-rays mass attenuation coefficients, of K and L –energy, of K, L and M fluorescence yield, of Kα/Kβ, Lα/Lβand Lα/Lγ


    Paolo Russo was born in Naples, Italy, in 1958. In 1981, he graduated in Physics from the University of Naples Federico II. From 1984, he was a Research Associate at the University before becoming an Associate Professor in 1992 and then a Full Professor of Medical Physics in 2001. His scientific research is focused on the development of medical imaging systems for digital radiography, computed tomography, and nuclear medicine. The applications of such systems includes autoradiography with microstrip and pixel semiconductor detectors; digital mammography with photon counting detectors; small animal SPECT and semiconductor compact gamma cameras; and a prototype scanner for cone-beam breast computed tomography using attenuation based and phase contrast based methods. From 2008 to 2012, Paolo served as the Associate Editor of the journal "Physica Medica" (European Journal of Medical Physics), before being appointed as the Editor-in-Chief of this journal in January 2013. He is also the vice-chair of the Publications Committee of the IOMP and the chair of the Publications and Communications Committee of the EFOMP. In addition, he frequently acts as a reviewer for several journals in Medical Physics and for research projects for the European Research Foundations. Dr. Russo has co-authored over 140 papers in peer reviewed journals and many scientific book chapters.

    "This is a comprehensive book on the application of x-ray technology in diagnostic radiology, industry, and art that serves as an encyclopaedic reference on the subject. It provides a thorough theoretical and historical background to the use of x-rays in medicine as well as their application to industry and art, complete with an up-to-date description of all the x-ray technologies in current practice. The section on x-ray production covers the basic physical processes involved and a wonderful chapter on the history of x-ray tubes, complete with numerous historical photographs, seldom seen in a modern publication.
    With over 1300 pages of text, this book is comprehensively devoted to the art of x-ray technology in many fields of research. Each chapter is covered in great depth as exemplified by the numerous references at the end, and, in toto, this book goes well beyond standard textbooks on the subject. Though primarily of interest to diagnostic radiological physicists, this book should be a standard reference book for all medical physics undergraduate, graduate and residency programs. For those whose interests lie outside the field of medicine, the basic physics and technology of x-rays described in this book will serve as a useful complement to their work. "
    Prof. Peter J. Biggs, Massachusetts General Hospital, USA

    "If you are looking for an excellent collection of up to date and in depth reviews on X-ray imaging, this is the publication you must have.
    The editor Paolo Russo has succeeded in collecting 68 (!) contributions from a total of 130 authors for this tome of the Series in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering by CRC Press…In between at about half of the pages, a nice and extensive historical image gallery of 56 photos is included with courtesy of the Deutsches Röntgen-Museum…It is impossible to mention equivalent all the excellent contributions in this publications in this limited book review…the articles do not only summarize the findings in their specific area, but state also valuable diagrams and mostly mathematical background formulas, that help to understand the effects and technologies described. This is especially valuable to readers like students, who want to enter a new subject in the field of X-ray physics and technology. Especially the mathematical appendix to the first chapter on "Basic Physics of X-ray Interactions with Matter" starting from the Maxwell equations is a tiny lecture book of its own. Extensive and up to date literature references help to connect to the original publications for each chapter. I strongly recommend this Handbook of X-ray Imaging Physics and Technology in its electronic version to my students as a reference book, as Paolo Russo surely intended it, too, and to you as well."
    —Prof. Markus Buchgeister in the European Medical Physics Newsletter, Summer 2018

    "An encyclopaedic, though accurate summary of X-ray science covering theoretical, practical and clinical aspect of X-ray imaging technologies in the medical, industrial and research fields makes this Handbook of X-Ray Imaging not only a precious tool for students but also a reference textbook for any scientist of the field and, in particular, for the medical physicists."
    —Marco Brambilla, President of the European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics, head of the Medical Physics Department, University Hospital of Novara

    "This is the impressive result of a well coordinated international effort to cover the full breadth of X-ray imaging, from its physical principles, basic technologies and historical perspectives through modern instrumentation for medical as well as non-medical applications up to emerging new developments. This book will certainly mark a new reference in the field and provide a wide range of information for a broad audience, from newcomers to experts in X-ray imaging techniques."
    —Katia Parodi, Professor and Chair of Medical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München 

    "The "Handbook of X-ray Imaging Physics and Technology" edited by Paolo Russo, covers a wide range of topics in medical imaging physics. It has contributions from experts, making it a unique and distinctive volume of literature in the field of X-ray imaging physics and technology.

    The book has been divided into four sections: Basic Physical and Technological aspects; X-ray Radiography and Fluoroscopy; X-ray Computed Tomography; and Phase-Contrast X-ray Imaging and other aspects.

    The book has an interesting historical image gallery containing rare photographs on the discovery and use of X-rays over the years. This book, with its detailed and painstaking coverage of all the important topics in X-ray imaging physics and technology, is an invaluable asset for both the teacher and the student. It will certainly be a welcome addition to the libraries of Radiology, Medical Physics, and Bioengineering departments around the world."

    Paul Ravindran, Professor of Radiation Physics, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India

    "The Handbook is unique in giving a broad view of x-ray imaging physics. For medical physicists it gives an insight into other fields; going smoothly from the basic science of x-ray physics to in-depth descriptions of different equipment, without forgetting quality and risk management. The Handbook is a must in any radiology and medical department."

     — Núria Jornet, Senior Consultant Servei de Radiofísica i Radioprotecció, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona