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1st Edition

High-Lift Aerodynamics



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ISBN 9781032115467
February 4, 2022 Forthcoming by CRC Press
332 Pages 203 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

The book presents a detailed look at high-lift aerodynamics, which deals with the aerodynamic behavior of lift augmentation means, from various approaches. After an introductory chapter, the book discusses the physical limits of lift generation giving the lift generation potential. It then explains what is needed for an aircraft to fly safely by analyzing the high-lift-related requirements for certifying an aircraft. The needs of an aircraft are also analyzed to improve its performance during take-off, approach, and landing.

Describing methods that are used to evaluate and design high-lift systems in an aerodynamic sense, the book also briefly covers numerical, as well as experimental, simulation methods. It also includes a special chapter that is dedicated to the aerodynamic design of high-lift systems.

The book is intended for graduate students in aerospace programs studying advanced aerodynamics and aircraft design. It also serves as a professional reference for practicing aerospace and mechanical engineers who are working on aircraft design issues related to take-off and landing.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1.1 A short history of high-lift systems 1.1.1 Development of high-lift devices 1.1.2 Trends for large transport aircraft 1.2 The limits of safe flight 2 Limits of lift generation 2.1 Incompressible, inviscid flows 2.2 Compressibility effects 2.3 The influence of viscosity 2.4 Types of wing stall 3 Airworthiness 3.1 The definition of the stall speed 3.2 Speed definitions 3.2.1 Take-off and climb 3.2.2 Approach and landing 3.2.3 Operating range in high-lift flight 3.3 Flight phases 3.3.1 Take-off 3.3.2 Approach and landing 3.4 Flight path slope requirements 3.4.1 Take-off climb requirements 3.4.2 Landing climb requirements 3.4.3 Steep approach 3.5 Load cases for stress assessment 3.5.1 Maneuver loads 3.5.2 Gust loads 3.5.3 Operating loads 3.6 Noise classification 4 Aircraft performance at take-off and landing 4.1 General relations 4.1.1 Phases of high-lift flight 4.1.2 Ground effect 4.2 Aerodynamic performance indicators 4.2.1 Take-Off 4.2.2 Climb 4.2.3 Approach 4.2.4 Landing 4.2.5 Short Take-Off and Landing 5 Passive high-lift systems 5.1 Slotless devices 5.1.1 Plain flap 5.1.2 Split flap 5.1.3 Gurney flap 5.1.4 Droop nose 5.1.5 Nose split flap (Krueger) 5.2 Slotted airfoils 5.2.1 The theory of multi-element airfoil aerodynamics 5.2.2 Slats 5.2.3 Slotted Krueger flaps 5.2.4 Slotted flaps 5.2.5 Fowler flaps 5.2.6 Double and triple slotted flaps 5.3 Vortex generating devices 5.3.1 Vortex generators 5.3.2 Vortex generator arrays 5.3.3 Slat horn 5.3.4 Nacelle strakes 6 Active high-lift systems 6.1 Boundary layer control (BLC) 6.1.1 Boundary layer suction 6.1.2 Tangential blowing 6.1.3 Unsteady blowing 6.1.4 Vortex generating jets 6.1.5 Fluidic oscillator 6.1.6 Synthetic jets 6.2 Circulation control 6.2.1 The Coanda effect 6.2.2 Circulation control airfoil 6.2.3 Coanda flap 6.2.4 Fluidic Gurneys 6.3 Thrust supported high-lift 6.3.1 Propulsive slipstream deflection 6.3.2 Externally blown flaps 6.3.3 Upper surface blowing (USB) 6.4 A remark on the application of active high-lift for civil transport aircraft 7 Simulation of high-lift flows 7.1 Experimental simulation 7.1.1 Wind tunnels 7.1.2 Wind tunnel model types and installations 7.1.3 Wind tunnel corrections 7.1.4 Non-correctable sources of measurement errors 7.2 Numerical simulation 7.2.1 Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) 7.2.2 Panel method 7.2.3 Lifting-line method 8 Aerodynamic design of high-lift systems 8.1 The design process of high-lift systems 8.2 Geometric description of high-lift systems 8.2.1 High-lift system layouts 8.2.2 Planform parameters 8.2.3 Shape parameters 8.2.4 Position parameters 8.3 Constraints 8.3.1 Structural constraints 8.3.2 Kinematics constraints 8.4 Relation of airfoil and wing design 8.4.1 Wing design section 8.4.2 Swept wing transformation 8.4.3 Local sweep transformation 8.4.4 Transformations of high-lift device deflections 8.5 High-lift design optimization 8.5.1 Methodology of numerical optimization 8.5.2 Definition of the design problem 9 Glossary 10 Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Dr. Jochen Wild is a Research Scientist at the Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology of the German Aerospace Center DLR. After studying aerospace engineering at Technical University Munich and Mechanical Engineering at Technical University Darmstadt, he joined DLR as a PhD candidate. In 2001, he received his doctorate from the Technical University Braunschweig. From 2008 to 2018, he led the High-Lift Aerodynamics team within the Transport Aircraft Department, which he headed in 2018/2019.

He has 25 years of experience in high-lift aerodynamics, high-lift system design and active flow control, with CFD and by wind tunnel testing. He has more than 100 contributions to scientific conferences, and about 50 contributions to books and scientific journals. For his scientific work, he was awarded with the Deutsche Lufthansa Stiftungspreis (1996), the Hermann-Blenk-Award (2013) and the EREA Best Paper Award (2015 and 2019). Since 2014, he has lectured on High-Lift Aerodynamics at the Technical University Braunschweig.

He has participated in numerous national and international projects, including the coordination of high-lift aerodynamics projects. He contributed to the EUROLIFT I+II projects, the CleanSky Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft project and the European FP7 project AFLoNext and currently to the CleanSky 2 LPA HLFC-Wing project. He coordinated the European FP7 project DeSiReH and the Active Flow Control activities within the AFLoNext project. Currently, he coordinates the Horizon 2020 project UHURA dealing with unsteady aerodynamics of high-lift systems.