Introduction to the Physics and Chemistry of Materials  book cover
1st Edition

Introduction to the Physics and Chemistry of Materials

ISBN 9781420061338
Published December 22, 2008 by CRC Press
533 Pages 369 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Discusses the Structure and Properties of Materials and How These Materials Are Used in Diverse Applications

Building on undergraduate students’ backgrounds in mathematics, science, and engineering, Introduction to the Physics and Chemistry of Materials provides the foundation needed for more advanced work in materials science. Ideal for a two-semester course, the text focuses on chemical bonding, crystal structure, mechanical properties, phase transformations, and materials processing for the first semester. The material for the second semester covers thermal, electronic, photonic, optical, and magnetic properties of materials.

Requiring no prior experience in modern physics and quantum mechanics, the book introduces quantum concepts and wave mechanics through a simple derivation of the Schrödinger equation, the electron-in-a-box problem, and the wave functions of the hydrogen atom. The author also presents a historical perspective on the development of the materials science field. He discusses the Bose–Einstein, Maxwell–Boltzmann, Planck, and Fermi–Dirac distribution functions, before moving on to the various properties and applications of materials.

With detailed derivations of important equations, this applications-oriented text examines the structure and properties of materials, such as heavy metal glasses and superconductors. It also explores recent developments in organics electronics, polymer light-emitting diodes, superconductivity, and more.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Materials Science

What Is Materials Science?

Role of Materials in History

How Materials Are Classified

Overview of the Classes of Materials and Their Properties

Contemporary Materials Science

What Is the Future of Materials Science?

Fundamental Principles

Review of Atomic Structure

The Electron

Schrödinger Wave Equation

One Electron Approximation

Periodic Table

Chemical Bonding

What Holds Stuff Together?

Ionic Bonding

Covalent Bond

Metallic Bond

Atomic and Ionic Radii

Secondary Bonding

Other Potential Functions

Appendix: Madelung Summation

Crystals and Crystallography

What Are Crystals?

Crystal Systems and Symmetry

Structural Relationships



The Structure of Matter

Structure of Metals

Intermetallic Compounds

Ionic Compounds

Covalent Structures

Structure of Glass

Structure of Polymers

Reciprocal Lattice and X-Ray Diffraction

Reciprocal Lattice

Diffraction Conditions

Diffraction Intensity

Methods and Uses of X-Ray Diffraction

Theory of Elasticity

Elastic Coefficients

Properties of Crystals with Cubic Symmetry

Measurement of Elastic Coefficients

Bond Energy—Elastic Coefficients Relationships

Theoretical Strength

Defects in Crystals

What Are Defects?

Point Defects

Line or One-Dimensional Defects

Two-Dimensional or Planar Defects

Volume or Three-Dimensional Defects


Mechanical Properties of Materials

Stress–Strain Relationships

Relationship between Lattice Type and Ductility

Strengthening Mechanisms


Fracture Mechanics

Mechanical Properties of Polymers


History of Composites

Types of Composites

Modeling the Performance of Composites

Phase Equilibria in Single Component Systems

Definition of a Phase

Solidification of Pure Systems

Solidification Process

Classical Homogeneous Nucleation Theory

Heterogeneous Nucleation

Recent Developments in Undercooling Experiments

Phase Equilibria in Multicomponent Systems

Gibbs Phase Rule

Entropy of Mixing

Heat of Mixing

Free Energy

Phase Diagram for Ideal (Isomorphic) Systems

Nonideal Systems

Alloy Solidification

Solidification of Multicomponent Systems

Directional Solidification

Zone Melting

Czochralski Method of Crystal Growth

Dendrite Formation



Vapor Deposition

Transformation Kinetics

The Avrami Equation

Isothermal Time-Temperature Transformations

Coarsening and Ripening

Precipitation or Age Hardening

Heat-Treatable Alloy Systems

Glass Formation

Distribution Functions

Specifying the State of a System

Bose–Einstein Statistics

Fermi–Dirac Statistics

Chemical Potential and Fermi Energy


Lattice Vibrations and Phonons

Vibrations in a Linear Homogeneous Medium

Waves on a Chain of Like Atoms

Motion of Atoms in a Diatomic Chain

Tests of the Model


Thermal Properties of Solids

Lattice Heat Capacity

Debye Model

Electronic Heat Capacity

Thermal Conductivity

Thermal Expansion

Coupled Transport Effects


Free Electrons in Metals

Drude Theory of Free Electrons in Metals

Matthiessen’s Rule

Problems with the Classical Free Electron Gas Theory

Quantum Theory of Free Electrons

Hall Effect

Wiedemann–Franz Ratio

Conductive Polymers

Band Theory of Metals

Nearly Free Electron Model

Binary Phase Diagrams for Mixed Valency Metals

Band Structure in Metals

Conductivity and the Fermi Surface

Tight Binding Approximation

Experimental Methods



The Group IV Systems

Intrinsic Semiconductors

Extrinsic Semiconductors

Hall Coefficient for Both Electrons and Holes

Conductivity of Semiconductors

Optical Properties

Semiconducting Polymers

Theory and Applications of Junctions

The pn Junction

Applications of Diodes

Tunnel Diode and Negative Resistance

Light-Emitting Diodes


Transistors, Quantum Wells, and Superlattices

Transistor Theory and Applications

Field Effect Transistors

Random Access Memory

Charge Coupled Devices

Moore’s Law



Quantum Wires and Quantum Dots

Dielectrics and the Dielectric Function

Conductivity of Dielectrics

Polarization in Dielectrics

Dielectric Function



Appendix: Internal Field Correction for Ionic Dielectric Function

Optical Properties of Materials

Review of Electricity and Magnetism

Optical Properties of Dielectric Materials

Optical Properties of Conductive Media

Magnetism and Magnetic Materials

Basic Relationships

Origin of Magnetism




Magnetic Domains

Magnetic Hysteresis

Magnetic Materials

Magnetic Information Storage Technology


Historical Perspective

Basic Properties of Superconductors

BCS Theory

Thermodynamics of Superconductivity

London Equations

Coherence Length

Type-I and Type-II Superconductors

Flux Quantization

Critical Currents

High Temperature Superconductors

Recent Advances in Superconductivity



A Summary, Bibliography, and Problems appear at the end of each chapter.

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... varies from the majority of available course resources on materials science and engineering for undergraduate engineering students, which cover a wide range of topics that ultimately converge on engineering design. … focuses on the solid-state physics and chemistry of materials at the graduate level. …well-written …. Graduate students, primarily those specializing in electronic materials, as well as faculty and practitioners will benefit tremendously from this book. Comprehensive index … . Summing Up: Highly recommended.
      – T.Z. Kattamis, University of Connecticut, writing in CHOICE Current Reviews for Academic Libraries, July 2009, Vol. 46,  No.11

This introductory text provides the background necessary for advanced studies in materials science by discussing the structure and properties of materials and their various applications. … The book has very good technical depth. Equations are clearly presented and problems are explained in detail to give the reader, especially those who have little background in quantum mechanics, a solid background in material science. … While the focus of this text is on the fundamental theory, many applications are presented in each chapter pertaining to the material covered in that chapter. … intended as an undergraduate course for materials science majors or for anyone interested in learning about the fundamentals of material. This text could serve as an excellent reference source for anyone who needs a basic and through understanding of fundamental material behavior.
      – IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, November/December 2009 - Vol. 25, No.6