1st Edition

# Introduction to the Physics and Chemistry of Materials

**Also available as eBook on:**

*Discusses the Structure and Properties of Materials and How These Materials Are Used in Diverse Applications*

Building on undergraduate students’ backgrounds in mathematics, science, and engineering, **Introduction to the Physics and Chemistry of Materials** provides the foundation needed for more advanced work in materials science. Ideal for a two-semester course, the text focuses on chemical bonding, crystal structure, mechanical properties, phase transformations, and materials processing for the first semester. The material for the second semester covers thermal, electronic, photonic, optical, and magnetic properties of materials.

Requiring no prior experience in modern physics and quantum mechanics, the book introduces quantum concepts and wave mechanics through a simple derivation of the Schrödinger equation, the electron-in-a-box problem, and the wave functions of the hydrogen atom. The author also presents a historical perspective on the development of the materials science field. He discusses the Bose–Einstein, Maxwell–Boltzmann, Planck, and Fermi–Dirac distribution functions, before moving on to the various properties and applications of materials.

With detailed derivations of important equations, this applications-oriented text examines the structure and properties of materials, such as heavy metal glasses and superconductors. It also explores recent developments in organics electronics, polymer light-emitting diodes, superconductivity, and more.

**Introduction to Materials Science**

What Is Materials Science?

Role of Materials in History

How Materials Are Classified

Overview of the Classes of Materials and Their Properties

Contemporary Materials Science

What Is the Future of Materials Science?

**Fundamental Principles**

Review of Atomic Structure

The Electron

Schrödinger Wave Equation

One Electron Approximation

Periodic Table

**Chemical Bonding**

What Holds Stuff Together?

Ionic Bonding

Covalent Bond

Metallic Bond

Atomic and Ionic Radii

Secondary Bonding

Other Potential Functions

Appendix: Madelung Summation

**Crystals and Crystallography**

What Are Crystals?

Crystal Systems and Symmetry

Structural Relationships

Interstices

Quasicrystals

**The Structure of Matter**

Structure of Metals

Intermetallic Compounds

Ionic Compounds

Covalent Structures

Structure of Glass

Structure of Polymers

**Reciprocal Lattice and X-Ray Diffraction**

Reciprocal Lattice

Diffraction Conditions

Diffraction Intensity

Methods and Uses of X-Ray Diffraction

**Theory of Elasticity**

Elastic Coefficients

Properties of Crystals with Cubic Symmetry

Measurement of Elastic Coefficients

Bond Energy—Elastic Coefficients Relationships

Theoretical Strength

**Defects in Crystals**

What Are Defects?

Point Defects

Line or One-Dimensional Defects

Two-Dimensional or Planar Defects

Volume or Three-Dimensional Defects

Diffusion

**Mechanical Properties of Materials**

Stress–Strain Relationships

Relationship between Lattice Type and Ductility

Strengthening Mechanisms

Creep

Fracture Mechanics

Mechanical Properties of Polymers

**Composites **

History of Composites

Types of Composites

Modeling the Performance of Composites

**Phase Equilibria in Single Component Systems**

Definition of a Phase

Solidification of Pure Systems

Solidification Process

Classical Homogeneous Nucleation Theory

Heterogeneous Nucleation

Recent Developments in Undercooling Experiments

**Phase Equilibria in Multicomponent Systems**

Gibbs Phase Rule

Entropy of Mixing

Heat of Mixing

Free Energy

Phase Diagram for Ideal (Isomorphic) Systems

Nonideal Systems

**Alloy Solidification**

Solidification of Multicomponent Systems

Directional Solidification

Zone Melting

Czochralski Method of Crystal Growth

Dendrite Formation

Casting

Sintering

Vapor Deposition

**Transformation Kinetics**

The Avrami Equation

Isothermal Time-Temperature Transformations

Coarsening and Ripening

Precipitation or Age Hardening

Heat-Treatable Alloy Systems

Glass Formation

**Distribution Functions**

Specifying the State of a System

Bose–Einstein Statistics

Fermi–Dirac Statistics

Chemical Potential and Fermi Energy

Appendix

**Lattice Vibrations and Phonons**

Vibrations in a Linear Homogeneous Medium

Waves on a Chain of Like Atoms

Motion of Atoms in a Diatomic Chain

Tests of the Model

Applications

**Thermal Properties of Solids**

Lattice Heat Capacity

Debye Model

Electronic Heat Capacity

Thermal Conductivity

Thermal Expansion

Coupled Transport Effects

Applications

**Free Electrons in Metals**

Drude Theory of Free Electrons in Metals

Matthiessen’s Rule

Problems with the Classical Free Electron Gas Theory

Quantum Theory of Free Electrons

Hall Effect

Wiedemann–Franz Ratio

Conductive Polymers

**Band Theory of Metals**

Nearly Free Electron Model

Binary Phase Diagrams for Mixed Valency Metals

Band Structure in Metals

Conductivity and the Fermi Surface

Tight Binding Approximation

Experimental Methods

Appendix

**Semiconductors **

The Group IV Systems

Intrinsic Semiconductors

Extrinsic Semiconductors

Hall Coefficient for Both Electrons and Holes

Conductivity of Semiconductors

Optical Properties

Semiconducting Polymers

**Theory and Applications of Junctions**

The *p*–*n* Junction

Applications of Diodes

Tunnel Diode and Negative Resistance

Light-Emitting Diodes

Photodiode

**Transistors, Quantum Wells, and Superlattices**

Transistor Theory and Applications

Field Effect Transistors

Random Access Memory

Charge Coupled Devices

Moore’s Law

Heterojunctions

Superlattices

Quantum Wires and Quantum Dots

**Dielectrics and the Dielectric Function**

Conductivity of Dielectrics

Polarization in Dielectrics

Dielectric Function

Ferroelectrics

Applications

Appendix: Internal Field Correction for Ionic Dielectric Function

**Optical Properties of Materials**

Review of Electricity and Magnetism

Optical Properties of Dielectric Materials

Optical Properties of Conductive Media

**Magnetism and Magnetic Materials**

Basic Relationships

Origin of Magnetism

Diamagnetism

Paramagnetism

Ferromagnetism

Magnetic Domains

Magnetic Hysteresis

Magnetic Materials

Magnetic Information Storage Technology

**Superconductivity**

Historical Perspective

Basic Properties of Superconductors

BCS Theory

Thermodynamics of Superconductivity

London Equations

Coherence Length

Type-I and Type-II Superconductors

Flux Quantization

Critical Currents

High Temperature Superconductors

Recent Advances in Superconductivity

Applications

**Index**

*A Summary, Bibliography, and Problems appear at the end of each chapter.*

### Biography

Robert J. Naumann

... varies from the majority of available course resources on materials science and engineering for undergraduate engineering students, which cover a wide range of topics that ultimately converge on engineering design. … focuses on the solid-state physics and chemistry of materials at the graduate level. …well-written …. Graduate students, primarily those specializing in electronic materials, as well as faculty and practitioners will benefit tremendously from this book. Comprehensive index … . Summing Up: Highly recommended.

– T.Z. Kattamis, University of Connecticut, writing inCHOICE Current Reviews for Academic Libraries, July 2009, Vol. 46, No.11This introductory text provides the background necessary for advanced studies in materials science by discussing the structure and properties of materials and their various applications. … The book has very good technical depth. Equations are clearly presented and problems are explained in detail to give the reader, especially those who have little background in quantum mechanics, a solid background in material science. … While the focus of this text is on the fundamental theory, many applications are presented in each chapter pertaining to the material covered in that chapter. … intended as an undergraduate course for materials science majors or for anyone interested in learning about the fundamentals of material. This text could serve as an excellent reference source for anyone who needs a basic and through understanding of fundamental material behavior.

–IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, November/December 2009 - Vol. 25, No.6