Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook : Two-Volume Set book cover
2nd Edition

Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook
Two-Volume Set

ISBN 9781439848838
Published January 29, 2014 by CRC Press
3559 Pages 1960 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

This new edition of the bestselling Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook brings together all aspects of the design and implementation of measurement, instrumentation, and sensors. Reflecting the current state of the art, it describes the use of instruments and techniques for performing practical measurements in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences; explains sensors and the associated hardware and software; and discusses processing systems, automatic data acquisition, reduction and analysis, operation characteristics, accuracy, errors, calibrations, and the incorporation of standards for control purposes.

Organized according to measurement problem, the Second Edition:

  • Consists of 2 volumes
  • Features contributions from 240+ field experts
  • Contains 53 new chapters, plus updates to all 194 existing chapters
  • Addresses different ways of making measurements for given variables
  • Emphasizes modern intelligent instruments and techniques, human factors, modern display methods, instrument networks, and virtual instruments
  • Explains modern wireless techniques, sensors, measurements, and applications

A concise and useful reference for engineers, scientists, academic faculty, students, designers, managers, and industry professionals involved in instrumentation and measurement research and development, Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, Second Edition provides readers with a greater understanding of advanced applications.

Table of Contents

Spatial, Mechanical, Thermal, and Radiation Measurement





Part I: Instrumentation and Measurement Concepts

Measurements, Instrumentation, and Sensors

Halit Eren

Characteristics of Instrumentation

John R. Hansman, Jr.

Operational Modes of Instrumentation

Richard S. Figliola

Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Instrumentation

Peter H. Sydenham

Measurement Accuracy

Ronald H. Dieck

Development of Standards

Halit Eren

Measurement Standards

DeWayne B. Sharp

Calibrations in Instrumentation and Measurements

Halit Eren

Intelligent Sensors and Instruments

Halit Eren

Virtual Instruments

David Potter and Halit Eren

Fail-Safe Instruments and Devices

Davide Quatrini, Giuseppe Fazio, Mauro Giaconi, and Adelio Salsano

Dynamic Error Measurements of Force Sensors

Akihiro Takita, Jin Tao, and Yusaku Fujii

Part II: Spatial Variables

Thickness Measurement

John C. Brasunas, G. Mark Cushman, and Brook Lakew

Distance Measurement

W. John Ballantyne

Altitude Measurement

Dimitris E. Manolakis

Attitude Measurement

Mark A. Stedham, Partha P. Banerjee, Seiji Nishifuji, and Shogo Tanaka

Inertial Navigation

Halit Eren

Level Measurement

Detlef Brumbi

Area Measurement

Charles B. Coulbourn and Wolfgang P. Buerner

Volume Measurement

Rene G. Aarnink and Hessel Wijkstra

Tilt Measurement

Adam Chrzanowski and James M. Secord

Proximity Sensing for Robotics

Ricardo E. Saad, Ben Benhabib, A. Bonen, and K.C. Smith

Part III: Displacement

Resistive Displacement Sensors

Keith Antonelli, James Ko, and Shyan Ku

Inductive Displacement Sensors

Halit Eren

Capacitive Sensors: Displacement, Humidity, Force

Halit Eren

Piezoelectric Sensors and Transducers

Ahmad Safari, Victor F. Janas, Amit Bandyopadhyay, and Andrei Kholkine

Laser Interferometer Displacement Sensor

Bernhard Gunther Zagar

Bore-Gaging Displacement Sensors

Viktor P. Astakhov

Ultrasonic Displacement Sensors

Nils Karlsson and Ole Pedersen

Optical Encoder Displacement Sensors

J.R. Rene Mayer

Magnetic Displacement Sensors

David S. Nyce

Synchro/Resolver Displacement Sensors

Robert M. Hyatt, Jr. and David Dayton

Optical Fiber Displacement Sensors

Richard O. Claus, Vikram Bhatia, and Anbo Wang

Optical Beam Deflection Sensors

Grover C. Wetsel

Velocity Measurement

Charles P. Pinney and William E. Baker

Part IV: Mechanical Variables

Acceleration, Vibration, and Shock Measurement

Halit Eren

Strain Measurement

Christopher S. Lynch

Tactile Sensing

Ricardo E. Saad, A. Bonen, K.C. Smith, and Ben Benhabib

Pressure Measurement

Kevin H.L. Chau

Vacuum Measurement

Ron Goehner, Emil Drubetsky, Howard M. Brady, and William H. Bayles, Jr.

Force Measurement

M.A. Elbestawi

Angle Measurement

Robert J. Sandberg

Mass, Weights, and Instrumentation

Emil Hazarian

Torque and Power Measurement

Ivan J. Garshelis

Density Measurement

Halit Eren

Fluid Viscosity Measurement

R.A. Secco, M. Kostic, and J.R. deBruyn

Surface Tension Measurement

David B. Thiessen and Kin F. Man

Part V: Acoustics

Acoustic Measurement

Per Rasmussen

Ultrasound Measurement

Peder C. Pedersen

Part VI: Flow and Spot Velocity

Capillary-Type Mass Flow Meter

Reza Pakdaman Zangabad and Manouchehr Bahrami

Differential Pressure Flowmeters

Richard Thorn

Variable Area Flowmeters

Adrian Melling, Herbert Köchner, and Reinhard Haak

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Zaki D. Husain and Donald J. Wass

Turbine and Vane Flowmeters

David Wadlow

Impeller Flowmeters

Harold M. Miller

Electromagnetic Flowmeters

Halit Eren

Ultrasonic Flowmeters

Hans-Peter Vaterlaus, Thomas Hossle, Paolo Giordano, and Christophe Bruttin

Vortex-Shedding Flowmeters

Wade M. Mattar and James H. Vignos

Thermal Anemometry

Jugal K. Agarwal and John G. Olin

Coriolis Effect Mass Flowmeters

Jesse Yoder

Drag Force Flowmeters

Rekha Philip-Chandy, Roger Morgan, and Patricia J. Scully

Pitot Probe Anemometer

John A. Kleppe

Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Meters

John G. Olin

Laser Anemometry

Rajan K. Menon

Part VII: Thermal and Temperature Measurement

Temperature Measurements, Scales, and Calibrations

Franco Pavese

Thermal Conductivity Measurement

William A. Wakeham and Marc J. Assael

Heat Flux

Thomas E. Diller

Resistive Thermometers

Jim Burns

Thermistor Thermometers

Rod White and Meyer Sapoff

Thermocouple Thermometry

R.P. Reed

Semiconductor Junction Thermometers

Randy Frank

Noncontact Thermometers

Jacob Fraden

Pyroelectric Detectors

Jacob Fraden

Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers

Rod White and J.V. Nicholas

Manometric Thermometers

Franco Pavese

Temperature Indicators

Jan Stasiek, Tolestyn Madaj, and Jaroslaw Mikielewicz

Fiber-Optic Thermometers

Brian Culshaw

Thermal Imaging

Herbert M. Runciman

Calorimetry Measurement

Sander van Herwaarden and Elina Iervolino

Part VIII: Radiation

Radioactivity Measurement

Bert M. Coursey

Radioactivity Detectors

Larry A. Franks, Ralph B. James, and Larry S. Darken

Charged-Particle Measurement

John C. Armitage, Madhu S. Dixit, Jacques Dubeau, Hans Mes, and F. Gerald Oakham

Neutron Measurement

Steven M. Grimes

Dosimetry Measurement

Brian L. Justus, Mark A. Miller, and Alan L. Huston

Part IX: Wireless Instrumentation

Wireless Instrumentation

J.P. Carmo and J.H. Correria

Wireless Sensor Node Hardware

Michael Healy, Thomas Newe, and Elfed Lewis

Mobile Instrumentation with Wireless Design and Implementation

Frederick Fortson and Kenneth Johnson

Powering Autonomous Sensors

Manel Gasulla, Maria Teresa Penella, and Oscar Lopez-Lapeña

Wireless Sensing Technology

Gregory C. Willden, Ben A. Abbott, and Ronald T. Green


Albert Lozano-Nieto

Part X: Control and Human Factors

PID Control

F. Greg Shinskey

Optimal Control and the Software

Halit Eren

Electropneumatic and Electrohydraulic Instruments: Modeling

M. Pachter and C.H. Houpis

Explosion-Proof Instruments

Sam S. Khalilieh

Measurement and Identification of DC Brush and Brushless Stepping Motors

Stuart Schweid, Robert Lofthus, and John McInroy

Human Factors in Displays

Jeffrey D. Onken, Barrett S. Caldwell, and Steven A. Murray

Appendix: Units and Conversions

B.W. Petley


Electromagnetic, Optical, Radiation, Chemical, and Biomedical Measurement





Part I: Sensors and Sensor Technology

Soft Sensors: Software-Based Sensors

Petr Kadlec

Implantable Systems

Vincenzo Luciano, Emilio Sardini, Alessandro Dionisi, Mauro Serpelloni, and Andrea Cadei

Bio-Inspired and Life-Inspired Sensors

Cesar Ortega-Sanchez and Halit Eren

Image Sensors

Mehdi Habibi

Principles and Technology of SQUIDs

Robert L. Fagaly

Next Generation of Smart Sensors

Michael E. Stanley and Stéphane Gervais-Ducouret

Needle-Type Environmental Sensors

Woo Hyoung Lee, Jin-Hwan Lee, Woo-Hyuck Choi, Ian Papautsky, and Paul L. Bishop

Single-Chip Chemical and Biological Sensors

Alireza Hassanzadeh and Robert G. Lindquist

CMOS Integrated Gas Sensors

Prasanta K. Guha, Sumita Santra, and Julian W. Gardner

Energy Harvesting for Sensors: DC Harvesters

Oscar Lopez-Lapeña, Maria Teresa Penella, and Manel Gasulla

Energy Harvesting for Sensors: AC Harvesters

Maria Teresa Penella, Oscar Lopez-Lapeña, and Manel Gasulla

Hydrogen Gas Sensors: Flow

H. El Matbouly, F. Domingue, V. Palmisano, and L. Boon-Brett

Thermal Sensors: Flow

Nam-Trung Nguyen

SQUID Magnetometers

Robert L. Fagaly

Sensor Networks and Communication

Robert M. Crovella

Part II: Electrical Variables

Electric Current Sensors

Pavel Ripka

Nonlinear System Modeling with Invariance to Fourier Transform for Fault Diagnosis: Application to Power Transformers

Gerasimos Rigatos and Pierluigi Siano

Meter Voltage Measurement

Alessandro Ferrero

Oscilloscope Voltage Measurement

Jerry Murphy

Inductive and Capacitive Voltage Measurement

Cipriano Bartoletti, Luca Podestà, and Giancarlo Sacerdoti

Current Measurement

Douglas P. McNutt

Power Measurement

Pasquale Arpaia, Francesco Avallone, Aldo Baccigalupi, and Carmine Landi

Power Factor Measurement

Michael Z. Lowenstein

Phase Measurement

Peter O’Shea

Energy Measurement

Arnaldo Brandolini and Alessandro Gandelli

Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity

Michael B. Heaney

Charge Measurement

Saps Buchman, John T. Mester, and T.J. Sumner

Capacitance and Capacitance Measurements

Halit Eren

Permeability and Hysteresis Measurement

Jeff P. Anderson and Richard J. Blotzer

Inductance Measurement

Michal Szyper

Immittance Measurement

Achim Dreher

Distortion Measurement

Michael F. Toner and Gordon W. Roberts

Noise Measurement

W. Marshall Leach, Jr.

Part III: Electromagnetic Variables

Microwave Measurement

Alfons Dehé, K. Beilenhoff, K. Fricke, H. Klingbeil, V. Krozer, and H.L. Hartnagel

Q Factor Measurement

Albert D. Helfrick

EMI and EMC Test Methods

Jeffrey P. Mills

Permittivity Measurement

Devendra K. Misra

Electric-Field Strength

David A. Hill and Motohisa Kanda

Magnetic Field Measurement

Robert L. Fagaly and Steven A. Macintyre

RF/Microwave Spectrum Analysis

Roberto Ambrosini, Stelio Montebugnoli, Claudio Bortolotti, and Mauro Roma

Part IV: Time and Frequency

Time Measurement

Michael A. Lombardi

Frequency Measurement

Michael A. Lombardi

Part V: Optical

Photoconductive Sensors

Fritz Schuermeyer and Thad Pickenpaugh

Photojunction Sensors

Michael R. Squillante, Kanai S. Shah, and James F. Christian

Vision and Image Sensors

Stanley S. Ipson and Chima Okereke

Charge-Coupled Devices

John A. Nousek, M.W. Bautz, B.E. Burke, J.A. Gregory, R.E. Griffiths, R.L. Kraft, H.L. Kwok, and D.H. Lumb

Densitometry Measurement

Joseph H. Altman


Robert T. Marcus

Polarization Measurement

Soe-Mie F. Nee

Refractive Index Measurement

Gerry H. Meeten

Turbidity Measurement

Daniel Harrison and Michael Fisch

Laser Output Measurement

Haiyin Sun

Optical Loss: Principles and Applications

M.M. Rad, Halit Eren, and Martin Maier

Part VI: Chemical Variables

Interference and Selectivity in Portable Chemical Sensors

Denise Wilson

Electrochemical Composition Measurement

Michael J. Schöning, Arshak Poghossian, Olaf Glück, and Marion Thust

Thermal Composition Measurement

Mushtaq Ali, Behrooz Pahlavanpour, and Maria Eklund

Kinetic Composition Measurement

E.E. Uzgiris and J.Y. Gui

Chromatography Composition Measurement

Behrooz Pahlavanpour, Mushtaq Ali, and C.K. Laird

pH Measurement

Norman F. Sheppard, Jr. and Anthony Guiseppi-Elie

Part VII: Medical, Biomedical, and Health

Wireless Sensor Networks in Health

Enrique Dorronzoro, Isabel Gómez, Ana Verónica Medina, Luis Fernández-Luque, and Jose Antonio Gómez

Sensors for Electrical Impedance Tomography

Tushar Kanti Bera and J. Nagaraju

Patient-Care Sensing and Monitoring Systems

Akihiro Kajiwara and Ryohei Nakamura

Sensor-Based Activity Recognition Techniques

Donghai Guan, Weiwei Yuan, and Sungyoung Lee

Biopotentials and Electrophysiology Measurement

Nitish V. Thakor

Blood Pressure Measurement

Shyam Rithalia, Mark Sun, and Roger Jones

Blood Flow Measurements

Per Ask and P. Åke Öberg

Medical Imaging

James T. Dobbins III, Sean M. Hames, Bruce H. Hasegawa, Timothy R. DeGrado, James A. Zagzebski, and Richard Frayne

Blood Chemistry Measurement

Terry L. Rusch and Ravi Sankar

Human Occupancy Detectors

Jacob Fraden

Part VIII: Environmental

GPR Principles and Applications

Jan Francke

Airborne Radiometers to Measure Electromagnetic Radiation in the Earth’s Atmosphere: Mature and Emerging Technologies

Manfred Wendisch

In Situ Sensors for Monitoring the Marine Environment

Graham A. Mills, Gary R. Fones, and Silke Kröger

Mobile Environmental Sensing Using Smartphones

Siamak Aram, A. Toriono, F. Rugiano, and E. Pasero

Space Dosimetry

Jarvis A. Caffrey and David M. Hamby

Capacitance Sensors for Nondestructive Moisture Determination in Agricultural Products and Biofuel Materials

Chari V. Kandala and Naveen Puppala

Radio Location, Radio Navigation, and GPS Systems

Halit Eren

Air Pollution Monitoring

Michael Bennett

Water Quality Measurement

Kathleen M. Leonard

Satellite Imaging and Sensing

Robert F. Cromp

Humidity and Moisture Measurement

Gert J.W. Visscher

Ventilation Measurement

L. Basano and P. Ottonello

Meteorological Measurement

John D. Garrison and Stephen B.W. Roeder

Robotics and Sensors: Environmental Applications

Gourab Sen Gupta

Part IX: Signal Processing


David M. Beams


Rahman Jamal and Robert Steer

Spectrum Analysis and Correlation

Ronney B. Panerai

Applied Intelligence Processing

Peter H. Sydenham and Rodney Pratt

Analog-to-Digital Converters

E.B. Loewenstein


A.M. MacLeod, P.F. Martin, and W.A. Gillespie

Grounding and Shielding

Daryl Gerke and William Kimmel

Amplifiers and Signal Conditioners

Ramón Pallás-Areny

Data Acquisition Systems

Edward McConnell

Part X: Displays and Recorders

Plasma-Driven Flat Panel Displays

Robert T. McGrath, Ramanapathy Veerasingam, William C. Moffatt, and Robert B. Campbell

Electroluminescent Displays

William A. Barrow

Light-Emitting Diode Displays

Mohammad A. Karim

Magnetic and Optical Recording

Yufeng Li

Liquid Crystal Displays

Kalluri R. Sarma

Cathode Ray Tube Displays

Christopher J. Sherman

Appendix: Units and Conversions

B.W. Petley


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John G. Webster received his BS from Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA and M.Sc and Ph.D from University of Rochester, New York, USA. A fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Instrument Society of America, American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Society, and Institute of Physics, he served on the IEEE-EMBS Administrative Committee and NIH Surgery and Bioengineering Study Section, authored/co-authored and edited/co-edited numerous books and publications, and received the IEEE-EMBS Career Achievement Award. A highly cited researcher for King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, he is currently a professor emeritus at University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.

Halit Eren received his BS, M.Sc, and Ph.D from University of Sheffield, UK. He also obtained an MBA from Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia. He has served as an instrumentation engineer at Etibank, as well as an assistant professor for Hacettepe University and Middle East Technical University, all in Turkey. An author and co-editor of several books and publications, he was associate professor at Polytechnic University, Hong Kong and visiting professor at University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. A senior member of IEEE taking roles in Region 10 activities and various committees for organizing conferences, he is currently teaching and conducting research at Curtin University.


"The new edition of this manual shows the state of  the art of measures, instrumentation, and sensors used in the field of biomedical engineering. It describes the use of instrumentation and techniques for performing underlying practical measures required particularly for medical sciences, explaining in detail the sensors that are used as well as the techniques, hardware, and software associated. ... The second edition certainly offers the most complete source of reference."
—Centro Nazionale Edilizia e Tecnica Ospedaliera (CNETO)'s Progettare per la Sanità, October 2015

"… a superb and well treated collection of engineering topics delving in-depth in the essential MEASUREMENT activity of almost any variable there is."
—Max E. Valentinuzzi, Institute Biomed Engineering-University Buenos Aires, Argentina

"… Even though different experts in their respective fields wrote the chapters; they are well-written and clear demonstrating the expert editing done by Professors Webster and Eren. The wide base of experts drawn together for this book demonstrates the broad coverage of this book by leading experts in the field of instrumentation.
—Michael R. Neuman, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, USA

"This is a very interesting, and moreover incredibly thorough, treatment of all aspects relating to sensors and measurements. … The material presented on soft sensors was very much a representation of the state-of-the-art whilst also being understandable and a good introduction to the subject."
—Alex Casson, University of Manchester, UK