1st Edition

Modeling of Processes and Reactors for Upgrading of Heavy Petroleum

By Jorge Ancheyta Copyright 2013
    562 Pages 195 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    The worldwide petroleum industry is facing a dilemma: the production level of heavy petroleum is higher than that of light petroleum. Heavy crude oils possess high amounts of impurities (sulfur, nitrogen, metals, and asphaltenes), as well as a high yield of residue with consequent low production of valuable distillates (gasoline and diesel). These characteristics, in turn, are responsible for the low price of heavy petroleum. Additionally, existing refineries are designed to process light crude oil, and heavy oil cannot be refined to 100 percent. One solution to this problem is the installation of plants for heavy oil upgrading before sending this raw material to a refinery.

    Modeling of Processes and Reactors for Upgrading of Heavy Petroleum gives an up-to-date treatment of modeling of reactors employed in the main processes for heavy petroleum upgrading. The book includes fundamental aspects such as thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, chemistry, and process variables. Process schemes for each process are discussed in detail. The author thoroughly describes the development of correlations, reactor models, and kinetic models with the aid of experimental data collected from different reaction scales. The validation of modeling results is performed by comparison with experimental and commercial data taken from the literature or generated in various laboratory scale reactors.

    Organized into three sections, this book deals with general aspects of properties and upgrading of heavy oils, describes the modeling of non-catalytic processes, as well as the modeling of catalytic processes. Each chapter provides detailed experimental data, explanations of how to determine model parameters, and comparisons with reactor model predictions for different situations, so that readers can adapt their own computer programs. The book includes rigorous treatment of the different topics as well as the step-by-step description of model formulation and application. It is not only an indispensable reference for professionals working in the development of reactor models for the petroleum industry, but also a textbook for full courses in chemical reaction engineering.


    The author would like to express his sincere appreciation to the Marcos Moshinsky Foundation for the financial support provided by means of a Cátedra de Investigación.

    Part I Properties and Upgrading of Heavy Oils
    Heavy Petroleum
    Assay of Heavy Petroleum
    Problems during Upgrading and Refining of Heavy Petroleum

    Technologies for Upgrading of Heavy Petroleum
    General Classification
    Current Situation of Residue Upgrading
    Hydrogen Addition Technologies
    Carbon Rejection Technologies
    Emerging Technologies
    Combination of Upgrading Technologies
    Combination of Both Hydrogen Addition and Carbon Rejection Technologies

    Part II Modeling of Noncatalytic Processes
    Modeling of Visbreaking
    Process Description
    Types of Visbreaking
    Process Variables
    Reactor Modeling

    Modeling of Gasification
    Types of Gasifiers
    Process Variables
    Process Description
    Chemistry and Thermodynamics
    Modeling of the Gasifier
    Simulation of the Gasifier

    Modeling of Coking
    Coking Processes
    Process Description
    Process Variables
    Fundamentals of Coking
    Kinetics of Coking
    Correlations to Predict Coking Yields

    Noncatalytic (Thermal) Hydrotreating
    Results and Discussion

    Part III Modeling of Catalytic Processes
    Modeling of Catalytic Hydroprocessing
    Process Description
    Types of Reactors
    Process Variables
    Modeling of Hydrotreating of Heavy-Oil-Derived Gas Oil

    Modeling and Simulation of Heavy Oil Hydroprocessing
    Description of the IMP Heavy Oil Upgrading Technology
    Experimental Studies
    Modeling Approach
    Data Fitting
    Simulation of the Bench-Scale Unit
    Scale-Up of Bench-Unit Kinetic Data
    Simulation of the Commercial Unit

    Modeling of Bench-Scale Reactor for HDM and HDS of Maya Crude Oil
    The Model

    Modeling of Ebullated-Bed and Slurry-Phase Reactors
    Characteristics of Ebullated-Bed Reactor
    EBR Commercial Technologies
    Modeling of Ebullated-Bed Reactor
    Modeling of Slurry-Phase Reactors
    Kinetic Study for Hydrocracking of Heavy Oil in CSTR
    Final Remarks

    Modeling of Hydrocracking by Continuous Kinetic Lumping Approach
    Continuous Kinetic Lumping Model
    Step-By-Step Example for Application of The Model
    Modeling Hydrocracking of Maya Crude Oil
    Modeling the Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Hydrocracking of Maya Crude Oil
    Modeling Simultaneous HDS and HDC of Heavy Oil
    Significance of Parameters of Continuous Kinetic Lumping Model

    Correlations and Other Aspects of Hydroprocessing
    Correlations to Predict Product Properties during Hydrotreating of Heavy Oils
    Hydrogen Consumption during Catalytic Hydrotreating
    Real Conversion and Yields from Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils Plants
    Calculation of Fresh-Basis Composition from Spent Catalyst Analysis
    Use of Probability Distribution Functions for Fitting Distillation Curves of Petroleum


    Jorge Ancheyta is Research and Development Project Leader at the Mexican Institute of Petroleum (IMP). He works on the development and application of petroleum refining catalysts, kinetic and reactor models, and process technologies—mainly in catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, middle distillate hydrotreating, and heavy oils upgrading.