Modeling of Processes and Reactors for Upgrading of Heavy Petroleum: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Modeling of Processes and Reactors for Upgrading of Heavy Petroleum

1st Edition

By Jorge Ancheyta

CRC Press

561 pages | 195 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781439880456
pub: 2013-01-29
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The worldwide petroleum industry is facing a dilemma: the production level of heavy petroleum is higher than that of light petroleum. Heavy crude oils possess high amounts of impurities (sulfur, nitrogen, metals, and asphaltenes), as well as a high yield of residue with consequent low production of valuable distillates (gasoline and diesel). These characteristics, in turn, are responsible for the low price of heavy petroleum. Additionally, existing refineries are designed to process light crude oil, and heavy oil cannot be refined to 100 percent. One solution to this problem is the installation of plants for heavy oil upgrading before sending this raw material to a refinery.

Modeling of Processes and Reactors for Upgrading of Heavy Petroleum gives an up-to-date treatment of modeling of reactors employed in the main processes for heavy petroleum upgrading. The book includes fundamental aspects such as thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, chemistry, and process variables. Process schemes for each process are discussed in detail. The author thoroughly describes the development of correlations, reactor models, and kinetic models with the aid of experimental data collected from different reaction scales. The validation of modeling results is performed by comparison with experimental and commercial data taken from the literature or generated in various laboratory scale reactors.

Organized into three sections, this book deals with general aspects of properties and upgrading of heavy oils, describes the modeling of non-catalytic processes, as well as the modeling of catalytic processes. Each chapter provides detailed experimental data, explanations of how to determine model parameters, and comparisons with reactor model predictions for different situations, so that readers can adapt their own computer programs. The book includes rigorous treatment of the different topics as well as the step-by-step description of model formulation and application. It is not only an indispensable reference for professionals working in the development of reactor models for the petroleum industry, but also a textbook for full courses in chemical reaction engineering.

The author would like to express his sincere appreciation to the Marcos Moshinsky Foundation for the financial support provided by means of a Cátedra de Investigación.

Table of Contents

Part I Properties and Upgrading of Heavy Oils

Heavy Petroleum




Assay of Heavy Petroleum

Problems during Upgrading and Refining of Heavy Petroleum

Technologies for Upgrading of Heavy Petroleum

General Classification

Current Situation of Residue Upgrading

Hydrogen Addition Technologies

Carbon Rejection Technologies

Emerging Technologies

Combination of Upgrading Technologies

Combination of Both Hydrogen Addition and Carbon Rejection Technologies

Part II Modeling of Noncatalytic Processes

Modeling of Visbreaking


Process Description

Types of Visbreaking

Process Variables



Reactor Modeling

Modeling of Gasification


Types of Gasifiers

Process Variables

Process Description

Chemistry and Thermodynamics

Modeling of the Gasifier

Simulation of the Gasifier

Modeling of Coking


Coking Processes

Process Description

Process Variables

Fundamentals of Coking

Kinetics of Coking

Correlations to Predict Coking Yields

Noncatalytic (Thermal) Hydrotreating



Results and Discussion

Part III Modeling of Catalytic Processes

Modeling of Catalytic Hydroprocessing


Process Description

Types of Reactors


Process Variables

Modeling of Hydrotreating of Heavy-Oil-Derived Gas Oil

Modeling and Simulation of Heavy Oil Hydroprocessing


Description of the IMP Heavy Oil Upgrading Technology

Experimental Studies

Modeling Approach

Data Fitting

Simulation of the Bench-Scale Unit

Scale-Up of Bench-Unit Kinetic Data

Simulation of the Commercial Unit

Modeling of Bench-Scale Reactor for HDM and HDS of Maya Crude Oil


The Model



Modeling of Ebullated-Bed and Slurry-Phase Reactors


Characteristics of Ebullated-Bed Reactor

EBR Commercial Technologies

Modeling of Ebullated-Bed Reactor

Modeling of Slurry-Phase Reactors

Kinetic Study for Hydrocracking of Heavy Oil in CSTR

Final Remarks

Modeling of Hydrocracking by Continuous Kinetic Lumping Approach


Continuous Kinetic Lumping Model


Step-By-Step Example for Application of The Model

Modeling Hydrocracking of Maya Crude Oil

Modeling the Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Hydrocracking of Maya Crude Oil

Modeling Simultaneous HDS and HDC of Heavy Oil

Significance of Parameters of Continuous Kinetic Lumping Model

Correlations and Other Aspects of Hydroprocessing

Correlations to Predict Product Properties during Hydrotreating of Heavy Oils

Hydrogen Consumption during Catalytic Hydrotreating

Real Conversion and Yields from Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils Plants

Calculation of Fresh-Basis Composition from Spent Catalyst Analysis

Use of Probability Distribution Functions for Fitting Distillation Curves of Petroleum

About the Author

Jorge Ancheyta is Research and Development Project Leader at the Mexican Institute of Petroleum (IMP). He works on the development and application of petroleum refining catalysts, kinetic and reactor models, and process technologies—mainly in catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, middle distillate hydrotreating, and heavy oils upgrading.

About the Series

Chemical Industries

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Chemical & Biochemical
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Fossil Fuels