1st Edition

Modeling of Processes and Reactors for Upgrading of Heavy Petroleum

ISBN 9781439880456
Published January 29, 2013 by CRC Press
561 Pages 195 B/W Illustrations

USD $220.00

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Book Description

The worldwide petroleum industry is facing a dilemma: the production level of heavy petroleum is higher than that of light petroleum. Heavy crude oils possess high amounts of impurities (sulfur, nitrogen, metals, and asphaltenes), as well as a high yield of residue with consequent low production of valuable distillates (gasoline and diesel). These characteristics, in turn, are responsible for the low price of heavy petroleum. Additionally, existing refineries are designed to process light crude oil, and heavy oil cannot be refined to 100 percent. One solution to this problem is the installation of plants for heavy oil upgrading before sending this raw material to a refinery.

Modeling of Processes and Reactors for Upgrading of Heavy Petroleum gives an up-to-date treatment of modeling of reactors employed in the main processes for heavy petroleum upgrading. The book includes fundamental aspects such as thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, chemistry, and process variables. Process schemes for each process are discussed in detail. The author thoroughly describes the development of correlations, reactor models, and kinetic models with the aid of experimental data collected from different reaction scales. The validation of modeling results is performed by comparison with experimental and commercial data taken from the literature or generated in various laboratory scale reactors.

Organized into three sections, this book deals with general aspects of properties and upgrading of heavy oils, describes the modeling of non-catalytic processes, as well as the modeling of catalytic processes. Each chapter provides detailed experimental data, explanations of how to determine model parameters, and comparisons with reactor model predictions for different situations, so that readers can adapt their own computer programs. The book includes rigorous treatment of the different topics as well as the step-by-step description of model formulation and application. It is not only an indispensable reference for professionals working in the development of reactor models for the petroleum industry, but also a textbook for full courses in chemical reaction engineering.


The author would like to express his sincere appreciation to the Marcos Moshinsky Foundation for the financial support provided by means of a Cátedra de Investigación.

Table of Contents

Part I Properties and Upgrading of Heavy Oils
Heavy Petroleum
Assay of Heavy Petroleum
Problems during Upgrading and Refining of Heavy Petroleum

Technologies for Upgrading of Heavy Petroleum
General Classification
Current Situation of Residue Upgrading
Hydrogen Addition Technologies
Carbon Rejection Technologies
Emerging Technologies
Combination of Upgrading Technologies
Combination of Both Hydrogen Addition and Carbon Rejection Technologies

Part II Modeling of Noncatalytic Processes
Modeling of Visbreaking
Process Description
Types of Visbreaking
Process Variables
Reactor Modeling

Modeling of Gasification
Types of Gasifiers
Process Variables
Process Description
Chemistry and Thermodynamics
Modeling of the Gasifier
Simulation of the Gasifier

Modeling of Coking
Coking Processes
Process Description
Process Variables
Fundamentals of Coking
Kinetics of Coking
Correlations to Predict Coking Yields

Noncatalytic (Thermal) Hydrotreating
Results and Discussion

Part III Modeling of Catalytic Processes
Modeling of Catalytic Hydroprocessing
Process Description
Types of Reactors
Process Variables
Modeling of Hydrotreating of Heavy-Oil-Derived Gas Oil

Modeling and Simulation of Heavy Oil Hydroprocessing
Description of the IMP Heavy Oil Upgrading Technology
Experimental Studies
Modeling Approach
Data Fitting
Simulation of the Bench-Scale Unit
Scale-Up of Bench-Unit Kinetic Data
Simulation of the Commercial Unit

Modeling of Bench-Scale Reactor for HDM and HDS of Maya Crude Oil
The Model

Modeling of Ebullated-Bed and Slurry-Phase Reactors
Characteristics of Ebullated-Bed Reactor
EBR Commercial Technologies
Modeling of Ebullated-Bed Reactor
Modeling of Slurry-Phase Reactors
Kinetic Study for Hydrocracking of Heavy Oil in CSTR
Final Remarks

Modeling of Hydrocracking by Continuous Kinetic Lumping Approach
Continuous Kinetic Lumping Model
Step-By-Step Example for Application of The Model
Modeling Hydrocracking of Maya Crude Oil
Modeling the Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Hydrocracking of Maya Crude Oil
Modeling Simultaneous HDS and HDC of Heavy Oil
Significance of Parameters of Continuous Kinetic Lumping Model

Correlations and Other Aspects of Hydroprocessing
Correlations to Predict Product Properties during Hydrotreating of Heavy Oils
Hydrogen Consumption during Catalytic Hydrotreating
Real Conversion and Yields from Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils Plants
Calculation of Fresh-Basis Composition from Spent Catalyst Analysis
Use of Probability Distribution Functions for Fitting Distillation Curves of Petroleum

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Jorge Ancheyta is Research and Development Project Leader at the Mexican Institute of Petroleum (IMP). He works on the development and application of petroleum refining catalysts, kinetic and reactor models, and process technologies—mainly in catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, middle distillate hydrotreating, and heavy oils upgrading.