Neurochemical Systems and Signaling
From Molecules to Networks
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Human brain made up of billions of neurons; communicate with each other through chemical messengers which are referred to as neuroactive substances. These neuroactive substances include neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, neurohormones and neuromodulators. Some neurotransmitters also act as neuromodulators and neurohormones. It would be cynical if there will ever be general covenant about the meanings of these neuroactive substances including neurotransmitters since the term neurotransmitter has traditionally been used very loosely indeed which includes neurotransmitters, neurohormones, neuromodulators and neuromodulators. Any alterations in functioning of these neuroactive substances can cause diseases.
The brain is the ultimate center that regulates all neurological and behavioral aspects of body through neuronal communications mediated via various neurochemicals as discussed above. Thus, neurologic and psychiatric disorders in most cases are result of disturbed neurochemical balance. Besides the multifaceted involvement of billions of neuronal cells, CNS is a complex organization with its diverse number of neurotransmitter systems as compared to autonomic nervous system, in which the parasympathetic system works on "rest and digest" phenomenon and sympathetic system on "fight or flight" phenomenon. There are more than 20 neurotransmitter systems and multiple receptors for each neurotransmitter as discussed in above sections. Any alterations in neurochemical balance are expressed in the form of neurological or psychiatric disorders like epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease, psychosis, depression, etc. Acetylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine and 5-HT are of utmost importance amongst neurotransmitters for their profound role in pathogenesis of various neurologic and psychiatric disorders in humans. Yet, the involvement of various proteins and peptides such as neurotrophic factors, growth factors, and endogenous chemical compounds cannot be ignored.
Day by day the suffering of people owing to imbalance of neurotransmitter is increasing. Various factors for example, stress, diet, genetics and disclosure to toxins such as alcohol and nicotine are liable for this imbalance. This imbalance may progress thoughtful mental health complaints. The main purpose of this book is to give the comprehensive overview of the neurological diseases associated with neurochemical imbalances. This book will be very effective for readers to get complete idea about neuronal signaling and linked neurological disorders as well as current status and future opportunities and challenges. It will provide a brief account of neurotransmission, as either a study or high-yield revision aid.
Table of Contents
Section I. Transmitters and Systems
Chapter 1: Adrenergic Neurotransmission
Chapter 2: Cholinergic Neurotransmission
Chapter 3: Dopamine Signaling
Section II. Neurochemical Signaling and Pathologies
Chapter 4: Neurochemical Signaling in Alzheimer’s Disease
Chapter 5: Alzheimer’s disease: Pathogenesis and therapeutics advancements targeting potential neurotransmitters and neuronal peptides
Chapter 6: Cholinergic Neurotransmission System: Signalling Pathways and Role in Parkinson’s Disease
Chapter 7: Neurochemical Alterations in Parkinson's Disease
Chapter 8: Therapeutic Targets and Neurochemical Signaling of Huntington’s Disease
Chapter 9: Schizophrenia: Neurochemical Insight into a Mind’s Faulty Dimension
Chapter 10: Neurochemical Signalling in Depression: Impact of Target-Based Pharmaceuticals
Chapter 11: Role of Endocannabinoids in Neurocognitive Dysfunctions
Chapter 12: Role of Glutaminergic System in Schizophrenia
Chapter 13: Mania: Developmental Considerations from Diagnosis to Treatment
Chapter 14: Myasthenia Gravis: Molecular Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Advances
Section III. Typical Neurochemical Processes
Chapter 15: Neurogenesis in the Embryonic and Adult Brain
Chapter 16: Neuronal Proliferation and Associated Diseases
Chapter 17: Neurobiology in Correlation with Romantic Attraction
Chapter 18: Neurobiology of love: A Comprehensive Analysis
Dr. Ghulam Md Ashraf is working as Associate Professor in King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. He has a PhD degree in Biochemistry with over eleven years of teaching and research experience in various disciplines of biological and medical sciences. Dr. Ashraf has taught various subjects like Biochemistry, Clinical Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Genetics, Immunology, Medical Lab Technology, Molecular Biology, Neurology, and Recombinant DNA Technology at graduate and post-graduate levels.
His primary fields of research are biochemistry and neurology, currently focusing on understanding the molecular and behavioral mechanism of effects of anti-diabetic drugs in pyschotic and dementia conditions. Dr. Ashraf’s lab is currently investigating the effect of anti-diabetic drugs in dementia, and their role in possible attenuation/reversal of anti-psychotic drugs induced weight gain in psychotic conditions. He is also investigating molecular and behavioral mechanisms of novel therapeutic combinations in multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Dr. Ashraf has published 293 research articles (citations: 5779, H-index: 39, i10 index: 147) and have been involved in 23 research grants [16 ongoing (13 PI, 3 CoI) and 7 completed (4 PI, 3 CoI)]. Dr. Ashraf is also involved in editorial roles in renowned scientific journals like Journal of Advanced Research (Associate Editor), Scientific Reports (Senior EBM), PLoS One (Academic Editor) and Current Neuropharmacology (Section Editor). He is professionally associated with the Royal Society of Medicine (Fellow), Royal Society of Biology (Member), American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Member) and Canadian Association of Neuroscience (Member). Dr. Ashraf has 235 Publons verified editor records, and 464 Publons verified reviewer records.
For his scientific contributions, Dr. Ashraf has been recognized by various international organizations. He was approved as a subject of biographical record in Marquis Who's Who in the World (2020). Dr. Ashraf has been recognized as Expertscape World Expert in Alzheimer’s disease (top 0.031%, ranked 1st in Saudi Arabia, 11th in Asia, and 52nd Worldwide) and Nervous System Diseases (top 0.0033%, ranked 1st in Saudi Arabia, 4th in Asia, and 13th Worldwide). Most recently, he has been listed in Top 2% Scientists Worldwide, announced by Elsevier BV (Baas et al., 2021).