1st Edition

Process Plant Piping Practical Guide to Fabrication, Installation, Inspection, Testing, and Commissioning

By Sunil Pullarcot Copyright 2023
    360 Pages 94 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    This book is designed as a complete guide to manufacturing, installation, inspection, testing and commissioning of process plant piping. It provides exhaustive coverage of the entire piping spool fabrication, including receiving material inspection at site, material traceability, installation of spools at site, inspection, testing and pre-commissioning activities. In nutshell, it serves as a complete guide to piping fabrication and erection. In addition, typical formats for use in piping fabrication for effective implementation of QA/QC requirements, inspection and test plans, and typical procedures for all types of testing are included.


    • Provides an overview of development of piping documentation in process plant design with number of illustrations
    • Gives exposure to various codes used in piping and pipelines within its jurisdiction
    • Quick reference guide to various applicable sections of ASME B 31.3 provided
    • Coverage of entire construction contractors' scope of work with regard to plant piping
    • Written with special emphasis on practical aspects of construction and final documentation of plant piping for later modifications/investigations

    This book is aimed at mechanical, process and plant construction engineers/supervisors, specifically as a guide to all novices in the above disciplines.

    Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 General 1.2 Piping 1.3 Piping Engineering 1.4 Piping Design 1.4.1 Conceptual Layout Design 1.4.2 Equipment Layout Design 1.4.3 Piping Layout Design 1.5 Design Basis 1.6 Design Codes 1.6.1 American Society of Mechanical Engineers 1.6.2 Editions and Addenda 1.6.3 Interpretations 1.6.4 Code Cases 1.7 History of ASME Codes for Piping 1.8 Loading Conditions for Piping 1.8.1 Static Loading 1.8.2 Dynamic Loading 1.9 Equipment Requirements 1.10 Client/Project Requirements 1.11 Material Specifications 1.12 Failure Modes 1.13 Scope, Coverage and Layout of ASME Code B 31.3 Process Plant Piping 1.13.1 General 1.13.2 Scope of ASME B 31.3 Process Plant Piping 1.13.3 Exclusions from ASME B 31.3 1.13.4 Types of Fluid Services Covered Chapter 2 Piping Documents Development Process 2.1 Key Documents 2.2 Project Design Basis 2.3 Block Flow Diagram 2.4 Process Flow Diagrams 2.4.1 Purpose of PFD 2.4.2 Contents of PFD 2.5 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram 2.5.1 Function and Purpose of P&IDs 2.5.2 When and Who Use P&IDs 2.5.3 Difference between a PFD and a P&ID 2.5.4 Limitations of P&ID 2.5.5 P&ID and Associated Documents 2.5.6 Contents of P&ID 2.5.7 Specific Exclusions 2.5.8 Standards and Rules for Preparation of P&IDs 2.5.9 Equipment Designation 2.5.10 Line Designation 2.5.11 Instrument Lines 2.5.12 Instrument Designation 2.5.13 Standard Symbols 2.6 Piping Engineering Deliverables 2.7 Piping Key Plan 2.8 Piping Isometric Drawings (Isometrics) 2.9 Piping Material Specification Chapter 3 Piping Isometric Drawings (Isometrics) 3.1 Significance of Isometric Drawings 3.2 Advantages of Isometric Drawings 3.3 Comparison of Orthographic and Isometric Drawings 3.4 Isometric Views in More Than One Plane 3.5 Piping Arrangement Symbols 3.5.1 Piping Arrangement Symbol (Pipes) 3.5.2 Piping Arrangement Symbols (Fittings) 3.5.3 Piping Arrangement Symbols (Flanges) 3.5.4 Piping Arrangement Symbols (Valves) 3.5.5 Piping Arrangement Symbols (Miscellaneous Fittings) 3.6 Preparation of Piping Isometric Drawings or Isometrics 3.7 Size of Piping Drawings 3.8 Typical Drawings â€" Style/Presentation and Contents 3.8.1 Piping Key Plan â€" Area Match Lines 3.8.2 Piping Key Plan 3.8.3 Piping Isometric Drawing 3.8.4 Piping Isometric Drawing with BOM Chapter 4 Piping Material Specification (PMS) and Material Take-Off (MTO) 4.1 Piping Material Specification 4.1.1 Contents of PMS 4.2 Piping Material Management 4.2.1 Material Take-Off Bill of Materials Material Take-Off Initial MTO Manual MTO Preparation Overview Steps for Generating Manual MTO MTO for Special Items MTO for Non-Pickable Items Generation of Total MTO Stages of MTO during Engineering 4.3 Preparation of MR 4.4 Purchase Enquiry 4.5 Technical Bid Evaluation 4.6 Purchase Order 4.7 Vendor Document Review/Approval 4.7.1 Typical BOM in Isometric Drawing 4.7.2 Typical MTO Chapter 5 Pipes 5.1 History of Pipe. 5.2 Pipe and Tube 5.3 Difference between Pipe and Tube 5.4 Material of Construction for Pipes 5.5 Manufacturing Processes 5.5.1 Seamless Pipes 5.5.2 Welded Pipes 5.6 Strengths and Weaknesses of Manufacturing Processes 5.7 Schematic Presentations of Various Manufacturing Processes 5.8 Size of Pipe 5.8.1 Nominal Pipe Size 5.8.2 Pipe Schedule 5.8.3 Length of Pipe 5.9 Methods of Joining Pipes Chapter 6 Pipe Fittings 6.1 BW Pipe Fittings 6.1.1 Bevelled Ends 6.2 Material of Construction 6.3 Types of BW Fittings 6.4 O’let Type Welded Branch Connections 6.4.1 Types of O’lets 6.4.2 Welding Requirements of O’let Fittings 6.5 SW Fittings 6.5.1 Technical Details 6.5.2 Advantages/Disadvantages of Socket Weld Fittings 6.5.3 Typical SW Joint 6.5.4 Types of SW Fittings 6.6 THD Fittings 6.6.1 NPT Thread 6.6.2 Types of THD Fittings 6.7 Mitered Elbows 6.8 Header and Branch Connections 6.8.1 Stub-in Connections 6.8.2 Stub-in Reinforcements Chapter 7 Flanges, Gaskets and Fasteners 7.1 Flanges 7.1.1 Bolted Flange Connections 7.1.2 Flange Rating 7.1.3 Flange Facing 7.1.4 Flange Types 7.2 Fasteners for Flanged Connections 7.2.1 Types of Bolts 7.2.2 Hexagonal (Hex) Nuts 7.2.3 Threads of Stud Bolts 7.2.4 Standard Thread Pitches 7.2.5 Coatings on Fasteners 7.2.6 Coating Thickness 7.2.7 Life Expectancy of Coatings 7.3 Gaskets 7.3.1 Classification Based on Configuration 7.4 Gaskets for Flanged Connections 7.4.1 Types of Gaskets Based on Material of Construction Chapter 8 Valves 109 8.1 Classification of Valves 8.2 Class Ratings 8.3 Common Types of Valves Chapter 9 Sequence of Mechanical Works after Award of Work 9.1 Work Progression on Award of Contract 9.2 Responsibility Matrix (Head Office and Site) 9.3 Organization Setup on Site 9.3.1 Introduction 9.3.2 Organization Chart 9.4 Design, Drawings and Documents Approval 9.5 List of Documents 9.6 Preparation of MTO and CS 9.7 Material Requisition 9.8 Technical and Commercial Bid Evaluation 9.9 Purchase Order 9.10 Vendor Data and Its Approval 9.11 Materials Procured from Stockists or Traders 9.12 Work Contracts 9.12.1 Sub-contract for NDT 9.12.2 Sub-contract for Scaffolding 9.12.3 Sub-contract for Surface Preparation and External Painting 9.13 Local Contracts/Purchases at Site Chapter 10 Fabrication of Piping Spools 10.1 General 10.2 Linear Dimensional Tolerance for Piping 10.3 Workshop Requirements 10.4 Stainless and Other High-Alloy Steel 10.5 Progress Control 10.6 Spool Sizes 10.7 Galvanized Piping 10.8 Painting of Spools 10.9 Shop Fabrication of Spools 10.9.1 Release of ISOs in AFC Status 10.9.2 Material Release 10.9.3 Material Traceability 10.9.4 Sizing of Pipe 10.9.5 Types of Weld Joints Required in Piping 10.9.6 Fit-Up of Butt and Socket Weld Joints 10.9.7 Threaded Connections 10.9.8 Flanged Connections 10.9.9 Branch Connections 10.9.10 Cold Bending 10.9.11 Mitre Bends 10.9.12 Misalignment Tolerance 10.9.13 Preparation for Welding 10.9.14 Cleaning 10.9.15 Preheating 10.9.16 Welding 10.9.17 Visual Inspection 10.9.18 Dimensional Tolerances for Pre-fabricated Piping Assemblies 10.9.19 Release for NDT of Completed Spools 10.9.20 Repair of Defects 10.9.21 Verification of Completion of Spool and Release for Post-Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) 10.9.22 Pipe Spool PWHT 10.9.23 Hardness Test of Welds (if Required) 10.9.24 Hydrostatic Test of Spool (as Applicable) 10.10 Surface Preparation and Painting 10.10.1 Inspection during and after Completion of Surface Preparation and Painting 10.11 Release of Pipe Spools and Tagging 10.11.1 Tagging and Numbering 10.12 Temporary Storage of Pipe Spools 10.12.1 General Storage Requirements 10.12.2 Stainless Steel Materials 10.12.3 Lined Steel Pipes Chapter 11 Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) of Piping 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Basic ASME 31.3 NDT Requirement 11.3 Enhanced NDT Requirements for Piping 11.4 Progressive Radiographic Examination Chapter 12 Preheat and Post-Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) of Piping 12.1 Preheating 12.1.1 Preheat Requirements 12.1.2 Verification of Preheat 12.1.3 Other Aspects of Preheating 12.2 Post-Weld Heat Treatment 12.2.1 General Requirements 12.2.2 Governing Thickness for Determining PWHT Temperature and Soaking Time 12.2.3 Heating and Cooling Methods 12.2.4 Heating Rate 12.2.5 Soak Temperature 12.2.6 Soak Time 12.2.7 Cooling Rate 12.2.8 Temperature Verification 12.2.9 Hardness Tests 12.2.10 PWHT of Weld Joints between Dissimilar Materials 12.2.11 Delayed Heat Treatment 12.2.12 Heat Treatment in Parts 12.2.13 Local Heat Treatment Chapter 13 Installation, Welding, Inspection and Testing of Piping Spools 13.1 Completed Piping Spools 13.2 Other Miscellaneous Components to Be Installed, Welded or Bolted 13.3 Cleaning of Piping Spools Before Installation or Erection 13.4 Piping Routing 13.5 Slopes 13.6 Fit-Up and Welding of Field Weld Joints 13.7 Flange Connections 13.8 Vents and Drains 13.9 Valves 13.10 Instruments 13.11 Line-Mounted Equipment/Items 13.12 Bolts and Nuts 13.13 Pipe Supports 13.14 Installation and Interconnection of Piping Spools and Other Inline Equipment 13.14.1 General Requirements 13.14.2 Installation of Valves 13.14.3 Piping for Rotating Equipment 13.14.4 Field Welding and Tests 13.15 Flanged Joint Bolting 13.15.1 Flanged Joint Bolting Torque 13.15.2 Flange Bolt-Up Procedure 13.15.3 Bolt Tightening Sequence 13.15.4 Recommended Torque Value Chart 13.16 Causes of Flange Leakage 13.16.1 Uneven Bolt Stress 13.16.2 Improper Flange Alignment 13.16.3 Improper Gasket Centring 13.16.4 Dirty or Damaged Flange Faces 13.16.5 Excessive Loads in Piping System at Flange Locations 13.16.6 Thermal Shock 13.16.7 Improper Gasket Size or Material 13.16.8 Improper Flange Facing 13.17 Safety of Flange Joint Assembly 13.18 Insulated Piping 13.19 Stainless Steel Piping 13.20 Plastic Piping 13.21 Lined Piping (Rubber, Polyurethane and PTFE Lining) 13.22 Underground Piping 13.23 Galvanized Piping 13.24 Mining Hose 13.25 Pressure Testing 13.25.1 Test Requirements 13.25.2 Test Pack Systems 13.25.3 Test Pack Preparation 13.25.4 Test Pack Limits 13.25.5 Test Pack Documentation 13.25.6 Special Notes on Test Pack Documentation 13.25.7 Test Media 13.25.8 Test Pressure 13.25.9 Hydrostatic Testing of Piping Designed for External Pressure (Jacketed Lines) 13.25.10 Pneumatic Testing 13.25.11 Test Duration 13.25.12 Preparation for Testing 13.25.13 Blinds for Pressure Test 13.25.14 Test Equipment 13.25.15 Completion of Testing 13.25.16 Test Records 13.26 Cleaning and Reinstatement 13.26.1 Cleaning 13.26.2 Reinstatement 13.27 Inspection of Valve Installation 13.28 Pipe Supports 13.28.1 General Guidelines for Supporting 13.28.2 Inspection of Supports and Restraints 13.29 Types of Supports 13.29.1 Rigid Supports 13.29.2 Pipe Hangers 13.29.3 Flexible or Resilient Supports Variable Load Flexible Support Constant Load Flexible Support 13.30 Restraints 13.31 Surface Preparation and Coating of Field Welds and Repair of Coating Damages 13.32 Surface Preparation and Painting of Piping After Installation 13.33 Punch Listing 13.33.1 Category A Punch Items 13.33.2 Category B Punch Items 13.33.3 Category C Punch Items 13.33.4 The Punch Listing Procedure 13.34 Release for Commissioning Chapter 14 Construction Documentation for Plant Piping (Mechanical) 14.1 General 14.2 Project Record Book 14.3 Documentation Mode for PRB 14.4 PRB Preparation and Review Responsibility 14.5 Construction Record Book 14.6 Documents Specific to Piping 14.6.1 Material Summary 14.6.2 Weld Summary 14.6.3 NDE Reports 14.6.4 Weld Joint NDT Summary 14.6.5 Heat Treatment Records and Charts 14.6.6 Weld Joint PWHT Summary 14.6.7 Pad Air Test Summary Reports 14.6.8 BOM Check Report (Test Pack Wise) 14.6.9 Test Pack Documentation 14.6.10 Punch List 14.6.11 Mechanical Completion and Handing Over Report 14.7 General Requirement for Contents of CRB 14.8 Records and Reports of Inspections, Tests and Calibrations 14.9 Certification for Materials 14.9.1 Components Requiring "Material Certification" in Piping 14.9.2 Contents of "Certification Dossier" for Bought Out Items (as Applicable) Chapter 15 Formats for Plant Piping Documentation 15.1 General 15.2 Formats for Spool Fabrication and Installation Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Index


    Sunil Pullarcot is a postgraduate in Mechanical Engineering having more than 38 years of industrial experience, one third of which is in oil & gas industry.

    During his career spanning over three and a half decades, he had worked in heavy fabrication and construction industry in a multitude of disciplines like, QA/QC, Engineering (Static & Rotating Equipment), Project Management, Construction Management and Commercial and that too in different roles representing manufacturer/contractor, consultant and finally as owner.

    Based on the vivid experience he gathered over years, he established himself as an accomplished trainer on topics related to Pressure Vessels, Heat Exchangers, Storage Tanks, Plant Piping, NDT and Welding. He is in the panel as Training Consultant to NExT, A Schlumberger Company, IBC Academy UK and an Approved ASME Instructor

    In his endeavor to pass on the valuable and unique experience he gained over 3 ½ decades to the forthcoming generations, Mr. Pullarcot has so far authored two books in his domain of expertise. They are Practical Guide to Pressure Vessel Manufacturing, published in 2002 and Above Ground Storage Tanks: Practical Guide to Construction, Inspection, and Testing published by CRC Press in 2015.

    Apart from the books, he published a few articles in renowned journals like Hydrocarbon Processing, Inspectioneering Journal and World Pipelines published from USA and UK in related topics.

    The book Process Plant Piping: Practical Guide to Fabrication, Installation, Inspection, Testing and Commissioning is his latest publication dealing with entire construction activities involved in Process Plant Piping, with all finer details, which often are not documented or considered relevant, especially in view of beginners in this field.

    Mr. Sunil Pullarcot is now retired from his last job as Specialist with Kuwait Oil Company and settled back in India.