1st Edition

Processing Vegetables Science and Technology

Edited By Durward S. Smith, Jerry N. Cash, Wai-Kit Nip, Y. H. Hui Copyright 1997

    The variety, distribution range and quality of processed vegetables have grown rapidly in recent years, due in large part to advances in vegetable processing technology. This 448-page book provides a detailed, expert guide to current methods of vegetable processing. The authoritative presentations were prepared by a team of leading international food specialists.
    The text is organized for easy reference and supplemented with hundreds of photographs and diagrams illustrating procedures and equipment. Hundreds of tables provide useful reference data in convenient form. Each chapter includes a section of extensive references for additional research on each subject.

    Some sub-chapter titles have been condensed here. Each chapter ends with a section of References.

    Fundamentals in Processing Vegetables

    Principles and Applications of Vegetable Processing
    B. S. Luh, Department of Food Science & Technology, University of California, Davis
    Introduction o Methods Used: Canning, Freezing, Dehydration, Pickling, Freeze-Drying o Chemical Changes - Harvesting, Handling, and Storing o Preparing Vegetables for Processing: Test for Adequacy of Blanching, Peroxidase Assay, Lipoxygenase Assay o Processing: Canning, Preparation, Blanching, Filling, Ensuring Vacuum in Containers, Sealing, Heat Processing, Labeling and Casing o Aseptic Processing and Packaging: The Aseptic System, Conditions for Aseptic Processing, Preproduction Sterilization, Flow Rate Control, Product Heating, Holding Tube, Cooling, Aseptic Surge Tanks, Aseptic Packaging Systems, Aseptic Zone, Production of Aseptic Packages, Record Keeping, Container Integrity, Pros and Cons, Highlights o Applications of Conventional Vegetable Processing: Asparagus, Beets, Green Peas

    Jerry N. Cash, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University; Nirmal K. Sinha, Graceland Fruit, Inc.
    Introduction o Considerations in Canning: Microbiological Considerations--Heat Resistance, pH; Thermal Process Considerations o Canning Procedures: Processing Steps, Metal Containers o Quality of Canned Vegetables: Nutritional and Sensory Qualities

    Drying and Freeze Drying
    Sin Bong Lin, Food Industry Research and Development Institute, Taiwan
    Introduction o Basic Concepts: Sorption Phenomena, Characteristics of Drying Curves, Moisture Movement Mechanisms o General Process of Dried Vegetables: Washing, Peeling, Cutting, Bleaching, Blanching, Drying, Packaging and Storage o Practices of Dehydration: Mushroom Slices, Onion, Ginger, Garlic, Sweet Potato

    Susan S. Sumner, Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Dianne L. Peters, Department of Food Science, University of Nebraska
    Introduction o Normal Microflora: Production/Processing/Distribution o Spoilage o Safety: Pathogenic Bacteria o Regulatory/HACCP Issues

    Processing Vegetable Commodities

    Edward E. Burns, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M University
    Introduction o Quality of Raw Carrots: Shape, Color, Texture, Flavor, Composition o Processing: Soak, Washing, Size Graders, Peeling, Timing and Inspection, Sizing and Cutting, Fill, Process o Carrots and Peas - Strained Carrots o Frozen Carrots

    Cucumber as a Processed Vegetable
    J. E. Staub and J. Bacher, Vegetable Crops Research, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, University of Wisconsin
    Plant Habit and Sex Expression: Genetics of Sex Expression, Hormonal Control of Sex Expression, Manipulation of Plant Architecture and Sex Expression o Molecular Markers in Cultivar Improvement: Identification of Molecular Marker Systems, Some Potential Uses of Molecular Markers o Culture: Varieties, Insects, Climate, Soil Fertility, Cultural Practices, Harvesting o Postharvest Management: Mechanical Damage, Transpirational Loss, Hydrocooling, Transport and Storage o Processing: Types, Refrigeration, Salt Brining, Factors Affecting Preservation, Internal Bloating, Purging, Physical Factors Affecting Bloating, Gas Exchange, Curing, Controlled Fermentation o Product Quality and Quality Control: Defects, Quality Control

    Edible Mushrooms
    Chung-Ping Huang and Yung-Hui Lee, Food Industry Research and Development Institute, Taiwan
    Introduction o Cultivation: Agaricus Bisporus (Lange) Imbach, Letinus Edodes (Berk) Singer o Processing: Canning o Dehydration o Freezing o Hygiene and Sanitation

    William M. Randle, Department of Horticulture, University of Georgia; Y. H. Hui, American Food and Nutrition Center
    General: Biology, Crop Production, Varieties and Variety Development o Drying: Preparation, Dehydration, Product Sizing o Canning: Packing, Harvesting, Preparation and Canning, Method of Analysis

    Edward E. Burns, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M University
    Introduction o Canning: Grading, Trim, Blanching, Acidification, Filling, Processing, Cooling o Dehydration: Operation o Brined Peppers

    Potatoes: Chip and French Fry Processing
    Alexander D. Pavlista, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, University of Nebraska; John C. Ojala, Idaho Falls Research and Extension Center, University of Idaho
    Introduction o Cultural Practices and Processing Quality: Cultivars, Seed Preparation and Planting, Irrigation, Soil Preparation and Fertilization, Temperature, Other Production Variables o Raw Product Quality: Size and Shape, Defects, Dry Matter and Specific Gravity, Product Color o Storage Management: Facility Preparation, Curing Period and Preconditioning, Holding Period, Reconditioning Period, Removal Period o Processing Procedures: Potato Chip Processing, French Fry Processing

    Snap Beans
    M. C. Bourne and C. Y. Lee, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University; J. R. Stavely, Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture
    Biology and Horticulture: Introduction, Plant Characteristics o Processing: Introduction, Structure and Composition, Preparation for Processing, Canned Beans, Frozen Beans, Dehydrated Beans

    Sweet Corn
    C. Y. Lee, M. C. Bourne, and D. L. Downing, Department of Food Science & Technology, New York State Agricultural Extension Service, Cornell University; E. Van Wann, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
    Biology, Breeding, and Culture: Introduction, Origin, Taxonomy, and Morphology o Commercial Processing: Introduction, Raw Product, Receiving and Husking, Processing

    Wai-Kit Nip, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Hawaii

    Introduction o Common Cultivars o Production Practices and Postharvest Handling o Chemical Composition: Proximate Composition and Nutritional Information, Taro Starch, Taro Gums, Dietary Fibers, Proteins, Minerals, Oxalates, Vitamins, Acidity Principle, Pigments, Nonallergic Principle, Minor Components, Effect of Cooking, Substrate for Aflatoxin Production o Processed Products (sampling): Poi (Taro Paste), Deep-Fried Taro Chips, Drum-Dried Taro Flakes, Frozen Taro Chunks, Taro Flour, Dried Taro Slices or Chunks o Problems in Processing

    Tomato Products
    James Swi-bea Wu, Graduate Institute of Food Science & Technology, National Taiwan University, Taiwan; Philip Edwin Nelson, Department of Food Science, Purdue University
    Introduction o Grading o Dry-Sorting o Washing o Resorting, Trimming, and Coring o Canned Tomatoes: Peeling, Final Inspection, Filling, Exhausting, Processing o Tomato Juice: Comminution, Extraction, Deaeration, Homogenization, Salting and Acidification, Thermal Processing o Tomato Juice Blends o Tomato Concentrates o Concentrated Tomato Juice o Puree and Paste o Tomato Juice from Concentrates o Bulk Storage and Transportation o Tomato Soup o Tomato-Based Sauces: Catsup, Tomato Sauce, Chili Sauce, Other Tomato-Based Sauces


    Data Tables
    Extensive reference data is economically presented in more than fifty tables. This quantitative data is useful in decision making on processing, food safety and marketing questions. Here is a small sampling of the titles of these tables.
    Vegetables, Commercial: Area, Production and Value of Principal Crops, U.S. o Summary of Canned Vegetable Packs (U.S.A.) o Calculated Sterilizing Values of Some Commercial Processes o Processed Vegetables for Which U.S. Standards of Grades Have Been Established o Time o Temperature Requirements for Canning Selected Vegetables o Average Retention of Vitamin C, B1, B2, Niacin, and Carotene after Blanching and Canning o Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Raw Vegetables o Comparative Composition of Peppers, Carrots, and Oranges o Thermal Processes for Canned Carrots o Pickle Cucumber Products o Characteristics of Some U.S. Pickling Cucumber Varieties o Relative Pungency of Selected Peppers o Flowchart for Potato Chip Processing o Thermal Process Time and Temperature for Green Beans or Wax Beans Packed in Brine and Processed in Still Retorts

    Well Illustrated
    The more than forty photographs, diagrams, and flow charts illustrate processes and equipment. Here are a few examples:
    Aseptic processing system o Brush washer for cleaning carrots o Temperature ranges for storage periods used in potato chip and French fry processing o Flowsheet of typical sweet corn process
    The thousands of references serve as a guide to further research on each chapter topic. These references comprise an extensive database on the literature of vegetable processing.

    Extensive Index
    More than 1,500 key words and terms are included in the very detailed index. This enables you to quickly find information you need on a wide range of vegetable processing topics.


    Smith\, Durward S.; Cash\, Jerry N.; Nip\, Wai-Kit; Hui\, Y. H.