Solar Power for the World : What You Wanted to Know about Photovoltaics book cover
1st Edition

Solar Power for the World
What You Wanted to Know about Photovoltaics

Edited By

Wolfgang Palz

ISBN 9789814411875
Published October 21, 2013 by Jenny Stanford Publishing
800 Pages 268 Color & 68 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

The book describes the industrial revolution associated with the implementation of electric power generation by photovoltaics (PV). The book’s editor and contributing authors are among the leading pioneers in PV from its industrial birth in 1954 all the way up to the stormy developments during the first decade of the new century. The book describes the dramatic events in industry between 2009 and 2013 and puts all this into perspective. It concludes that solar power is yet to strengthen its role in technology and in mainstream of the world’s economy.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors
Hymn to the Sun
Introduction to Solar Power for theWorld
1 The Rising Sun in a Developing World
Wolfgang Palz
1.1 Electric Power, a Pillar of Modern Society
1.1.1 Electricity in Today’s Life
1.1.2 The ConventionalWorld of Electricity
1.1.3 Solar PV: A Part of the New Semiconductor
1.2 Looking Back to Light the Future
1.2.1 The Emergence of Electricity
1.2.2 From the "Voltaic Pile" to the Photovoltaic Cell
1.2.3 Photovoltaic Power: The First Steps
1.3 Solar Power for Space Satellites
1.4 First Ideas about Lighting with Solar Power
1.4.1 Mutations of the Societies in the US and Europe
1.4.2 A New Awareness for Solar Power
1.4.3 The Oil-Price Shocks and the Nuclear Disaster
of 1986
1.5 After the Vision: A Mountain of Challenges
1.5.1 PV in the Starting Blocks in 1973
1.5.2 The Cost Problem: Technological Challenges
1.5.3 The Chicken and Egg Problem: Mass
1.5.4 Entrenched Energy Strategies and Politics
1.5.5 Against Dominant Allocations of State Budgets
1.5.6 Administrations
1.5.7 Energy Pay-Back Time and Module Lifetime
1.5.8 Intermittency of Supply
1.5.9 Environmental Challenges
1.6 Leadership
1.6.1 The Pioneering Role of the US
1.6.2 France: A European Solar Pioneer
1.6.3 PV Start-Up in Germany
1.6.4 PV Ups and Downs in Japan
1.6.5 UNESCO
1.6.6 The European Union
1.6.7 The G8
1.6.8 The Energy Empire Fights Back
2 Solar Power for the World
Wolfgang Palz
2.1 Basics for a New Solar Age
2.1.1 The Ethical Imperative of Photovoltaics
2.1.2 Cost and Social Acceptance: Ingredients for a
Viable Energy Strategy
2.1.3 PV as Part of a Holistic Approach towards
Renewable Energy Implementation and Energy
2.1.4 What about the Power Plants on the Road? Car drivers and their power plants Mobilising PV for transport
2.2 Driving Forces
2.2.1 Aspirations of the People
2.2.2 Preserving Nature and Alleviating Climate
2.2.3 Peak Oil
2.2.4 Energy Security of Supply
2.3 The Role of Stakeholders in Society
2.3.1 Governments and Administrations
2.3.2 Industry and Finance
2.3.3 PV Costs and Benefits for Society: A Special
Role for the Grid Operators
2.4 A New Energy Paradigm
2.4.1 Centralised or Decentralised PV
2.4.2 What Role Can Conventional Power Utilities
2.4.3 Communities and Regions Mastering Their
Own Energy Supply
2.4.4 The Autonomous Energy House: Solar
Architecture and the Building Industry
2.5 Power for the People
2.5.1 Starting a Global Strategy: 10Watts per Head
2.5.2 PV for the People in the IndustrialisedWorld
2.5.3 PV for the People in the Solar Belt
2.6 Power for the Poor
2.6.1 Getting Involved
2.6.2 PV Power for the Poor in the Developing
2.6.3 Power for the Poor in the Industrialised
2.7 Power for Peace
3 PV Today and Forever
Wolfgang Palz
3.1 Solar Power 2009–10: AWealth of Achievements
3.1.1 The Global PV Markets 2009–10
3.1.2 Political, Financial, and Industrial Environment
3.1.3 The Technology Boom Goes On
3.2 Outlook
3.2.1 On the Threshold of Commercial Viability
3.2.2 Outlook towards 2020
3.2.3 PV as Part of a 100 Percent Renewable Energy
3.3 Conclusions
4 EarlyWork on Photovoltaic Devices at the Bell Telephone
Morton B. Prince
5 Terrestrial Photovoltaic Industry: The Beginning
Peter F. Varadi
6 Bringing the Oil Industry into the Picture
Karl Wolfgang B¨oer
7 The Story of SunPower
Richard M. Swanson
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The Beginnings of Terrestrial PV
7.3 My Early Years
7.4 Formation of SunPower
7.5 Concentrators
7.6 Race Cars
7.7 Optical Detectors
7.8 The PV Business Takes Off
7.9 Airplanes
7.10 Project Mercury
7.11 A New Plan
7.12 Cypress
7.13 Goodbye Concentrators
7.14 Becoming a Manufacturer
7.15 Polarization
7.16 IPO
7.17 PowerLight
7.18 Epilog
8 History of Technologies, Development for Solar Silicon Cost
Frederick Schmid
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Development of HEM and FAST for Reducing the
Cost of SiliconWafers
8.3 FAST Development
8.4 Development of Technology for Reducing Silicon
8.5 Summary
9 Solar Cell Development Work at COMSAT Laboratories
Denis J. Curtin
10 The IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference
Americo F. (Moe) Forestieri
10.1 Brief History of the US IEEE PVSC and the William
R. Cherry Committee
10.2 8th PVSC: The 1970 PVSC in Seattle,Washington,
by Joseph Loferski
10.3 12th PVSC: 1976 Baton Rouge, Louisiana,
by Americo Forestieri
11 Initiating a Solar Revolution in Germany
Hermann Scheer
12 My Solar Age Started with Tchernobyl
Franz Alt
12.1 Solar Policy Is Social Policy
13 Will This Work? Is It Realistic? Thoughts and Acts of a
Political Practitioner with a Solar Vision
Hans-Josef Fell
13.1 MyWay of Solar Thinking
13.2 Being Called a Solar Do-Gooder and Unrealistic
13.3 Some Important Steps of My Life Illustrate the
Persistence of My SolarWay
13.4 And How Is It Today?
14 The Role of Research Institutes for the Promotion of PV:
The Case of Fraunhofer ISE (Institute of Solar Energy
Adolf Goetzberger
15 PV in Berlin—How it All Began: The Story of Solon, Q-Cells.
PV in Brazil
Stefan Krauter
16 The Kick-Off PV Programme in Germany: The One
Thousand PV Roofs Programme
Walter Sandtner
17 The Story of Developing Solar Glass Fac¸ades
Joachim Benemann
18 PV in Europe, from 1974 to 2009: A Personal Experience
Helmut Kiess
18.1 Insight Period: 1974–1988
18.2 Innovation Period during the Decade 1988–1998
18.2.1 State of the Art in 1988: Some Details
18.2.2 The Decade between 1988 and 1998
18.2.3 State of the Art in 1998: Some Details
18.3 Innovation and Industrial Production during the
Decade between 1998 and 2008
18.3.1 State of the Art in 2008: Some Details
18.4 Epilogue
19 France Did NotWant to Look for the Sun
Alain Li´ebard and Yves-Bruno Civel
20 More Electricity for Less CO2
Yves Bamberger
20.1 Electric Eco-Efficient End-Uses
20.2 Achieving an Ever Lower-Carbon Electricity Mix
with Nuclear and Renewables
20.3 Networks: A Tool for Pooling Production and
Integrating Renewable Energies
20.4 Carbon-Free Electric Mix as an Opportunity to
Develop New Industrial Facilities
21 The History of Renewable Energies in the Canary Islands,
Especially in Tenerife
Ricardo Melchior and Manuel Cendagorta
22 WhyWas Switzerland Front-Runner for PV in the 90s but
Lost the Leadership after 2000?
Thomas Nordmann
23 Solar Power in Geneva, Switzerland
Philippe Verburgh
23.1 A First-Class Solar Potential
23.2 The "5 MW Solar" Project and the "SIG Vitale
23.3 A Sunny Future for Geneva
24 The PV World Conference in Vienna
Wolfgang Hein
25 Abandoning Nuclear in Favor of Renewable Energies: The
Life Story of Giuliano Grassi—Florence, Italy
Giuliano Grassi
25.1 First Period: Beginning of My Professional Activity
as Engineer
25.2 Second Period: Transition from Electro-Mechanical
to Nuclear Activity
25.3 Third Period: Renewable Energies
25.4 Concluding Remarks
26 PV in Japan: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow 417
Osamui Ikki and Izumi Kaizuka
26.1 History
26.2 Current Status of PV in Japan
26.3 New Support Framework for PV
26.4 Conclusion
27 Leaders of the Early Days of the Chinese Solar Industry
Qin Haiyan
27.1 Turning a Dream into a Reality: The Story of
Huang Ming
27.2 The Richest Man in China: The Story of Shi
27.3 Internationalization and a Traditional Chinese Soul:
The Story of Miao Liansheng
27.4 Development Led by Technology: The Story of
Gao Jifan
28 Review of China’s Solar PV Industry in 2009
Gao Hu
29 Lighting theWorld: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
Biswajit Ghosh
29.1 Light and Energy
29.2 Path toward Initiatives on PV Research
29.3 PV in India and International Scientific
29.4 Lighting the Remote
29.5 Views of the Author
30 Photovoltaics in the World Bank Group Portfolio
Anil Cabraal
30.1 World Bank Group Photovoltaics Projects
30.2 Business Models for Off-Grid Service
30.3 Key Lessons of Experience
30.4 Guidelines for Designing Sustainable Off-Grid
30.5 Future Support for Photovoltaics
31 Illiterate Rural Grandmothers Solar-Electrifying Their Own
Bunker Roy
31.1 Ground-Breaking Innovation in the Field of
31.2 Sustainable Development: Now and in the Future
31.3 Innovation and Its Practical Application
31.4 Demystifying of 21st Century Technology in
19th Century Conditions—Management, Control
and Ownership in the Hands of the Rural Poor
around theWorld
31.5 Present and Future Impact of Innovation: Number
of People Affected
31.5.1 Renewable Energy
31.5.2 Continent of Africa
31.5.3 Global Providing an answer to a major
challenge-tackling global climate
change from the community level
32 Early PV Markets and Solar Solutions in South Asia
Neville Williams
33 Photovoltaic Power Systems for Lifting Women Out of
Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa
Dominique Campana
33.1 Solar Energy against the "Energy Poverty" Trap
33.2 In Conclusion
34 Promoting PV in Developing Countries
Bernard McNelis
34.1 Looking at Solar
34.2 Into PV
34.3 Into All Things Solar
34.4 Into Intermediate Technology
34.5 Into Africa
34.6 Global Solar Pumping Programme
34.7 IT Power
34.8 Mali
34.9 Dominican Republic
34.10 China
34.11 Robert Hill
34.12 EPIA
34.13 World Bank,Washington, Corruption
34.14 Other Countries, People, Institutions
34.15 Where DoWe Go from Here?
35 On the International Call for Photovoltaics of 2008
Daniel Lincot
36 AWorld Network for Solar R&D: ISES
Monica Oliphant
37 Three Steps to a Solar System: From 1% to 40% and 100%
Harry Lehmann
37.1 Equal Treatment
37.2 A Further Step: Coming Out of the Niche
37.3 Full Solar Supply or the "Great Transformation"
37.4 Scenarios: A Look into the Present and the
37.5 To Sum Up I Can Say: 100% Solar System Is
38 SolarBank
Michael T. Eckhart
38.1 Landmark Solar PV Study in 1978
38.2 Away from PV for 15 Years
38.3 Return to Solar PV in 1995
38.4 World Bank 1996–1998
38.5 India 1996–2001
38.6 South Africa 1997–2002
38.7 Europe 1997–2004
38.8 ACORE 2001–Present
38.9 Bonn 2004, WIREC 2008, and IRENA
38.10 SolarBank Looking Forward
39 Solar Power in Practice
Stefan Behling
40 AWorld in Blue
Bernd Melchior
40.1 From Butterflies to aWorld in "Blue": How Did This
40.2 New Treatment for Porous Materials to Conserve
Monuments Like the Dome of Cologne
40.3 Process Steps for a Treatment with the
40.4 Translucent Insulation Material
40.5 My Start into Photovoltaic
40.6 Changing DC Current into AC Current
40.7 Diffuse Light Concentrator
40.8 Tracking and Concentration Systems
40.9 The ADS Concept: Autonomous, Decentralized,
40.10 The Blue Mountain
40.11 ADS Robinson Club on Fuerteventura
40.12 First Bungalow in theWorld Realized in ADS:
"Casa Solar", Almunecar, Spain
40.13 Solar Powered Container: 3000 km Trip to 7th EU
Photovoltaic Solar Conference and Exhibition in
Seville, Spain, October 1986
40.14 A Solar Powered OrthopedicWorkshop Container
for a Hospital in Tanzania
40.15 Integration of Photovoltaic into Roofs: "Sunflate"
40.16 SUNCLAY + SUNERGY: A Two-Component
Photovoltaic System for the Harmonic, Aesthetic
and Flexible Integration into the Architecture of
40.17 Next Generation Photovoltaic
40.18 New Generation of Solar Clay Tiles
40.19 The Combination of Solar and Wind BSWT
41 Factory for Sale, or the Long and StonyWay to Cheap Solar
Energy: The Story of the Thin-Film CdTe Solar Cells; First
Solar and Others—A Semi-Autobiography
Dieter Bonnet
42 High Efficiency Photovoltaics for a SustainableWorld
Antonio Luque
42.1 Introduction
42.2 The 2008 Spanish Boom
42.3 A Market Forecast Model
42.4 The FULLSPECTRUM Project and the ISFOC
42.5 Summary
43 Nonconventional Sensitized Mesoscopic (Gr¨atzel) Solar
Michael Gr¨atzel
44 Solar Bicycles, Mercedes, Handcuffs—PlusEnergy Buildings
Gallus Cadonau
44.1 AWorldwide Unique Solar Decision: Tour de Sol
44.1.1 CO2-free Hotel Ucliva in the Swiss Alps:
1st Solarcar Race of theWorld
44.1.2 Tour de Sol 1985: Solar Bicycles and
Mercedes Benz
44.1.3 First Solarcar Driving Past an Atomic
Power Plant
44.1.4 Geneva—Final Stage of the 1st Tour de Sol
1985: The Power of the Sun
44.1.5 Tour de Sol 2 in 1986: Massachusetts
Institute of Technology in the Roadside
44.1.6 Welding and Sweating Instead of
44.1.7 Strong Solar Teams from Germany and the
Swiss School of Engineering Biel
44.1.8 Solar Cells for "Independency" or
Terrestrial PV Utilisation?
44.1.9 Tour 3 in 1987: Huge Interest and
44.1.10 Huge International Media Coverage
44.1.11 Tour Organisation and Its Regulations
44.1.12 Tour de Sol Protests and Appeals in Court?
44.1.13 Solar Mountain Race: Through 360 Curves
to Arosa/GR
44.2 World’s First Energy Feed-in System in
44.2.1 Tour de Sol in France: Solar Energy Instead
of Air Pollution
44.2.2 World’s First Energy Feed-in System in
Burgdorf/BE: "Grid Interconnection"
44.2.3 The Principles of Solar Energy Use: Best
Technology or Self-Sufficiency?
44.2.4 Tour de Sol 4 in 1988: PV Innovation and
Financing Are Getting Broader
44.2.5 PV on Land and onWater
44.2.6 Solar Energy Is Getting Increasingly
Popular Also for Groups and Managers
44.2.7 Safety, Recuperation and Road Capability in
44.2.8 Solar Power: A Friendly Alternative
44.2.9 Tour de Sol: "A Hotbed for Solar-Electric
44.2.10 Car Makers, What Have You Done in the
44.2.11 Tour de Sol and the International Solarcar
Federation (ISF)
44.2.12 Rail 2000 and Solarcars in Double-Deck
44.2.13 The Ideal SOLARCAR 2000: Emission-Free
Traffic Circulation in the 21st Century
44.3 The Solar Alternative in Road Traffic:World Solar
44.3.1 The Solar Alternative in Road Traffic Two hundred years after the
French Revolution: The Solar
Revolution (1989) California’s Clean Air Act,
Zero-Emission Vehicles, PV
Program for 1000 kW Roofs First alpine crossing with
solarcars: The Sun conquers the
Gotthard Pass in 1989 Solarcar: A danger for 150 pigs? Alpine tests at the 1st European
Championship of Alpine
Solarcars (ASEM) in 1989 Bea Vetterli’s solarcar in the
mountains: downhill with more
than 100 km/h St. Moritz: 1st ASEM finish and
1st electric light in Switzerland The British and St. Moritz:
Inventors of winter tourism Clean Energy St. Moritz: The
overall energy concept Last Tour de Sol in 1991 Solarcar world record: 148 km/h
at the ASEM 1995
44.3.2 World Solar Challenge in Australia and
the US FirstWorld Solar Challenge in
1987: 3005 km across Australia Japan’sWaterloo at the 1st WSC:
Detlef Schmitz Missed the Start The SecondWorld Solar
Challenge and its dangers in the
Australian desert The "GREATEST RACE on EARTH,
Creating a SOLUTION not
POLLUTION" International Solar High-Tech
Competition across Australia What technology and strategy
was responsible for the victory? "Spirit of Biel": 1.8 dl (Solar) fuel
for 100 km—55 times more
efficient Great suspense and an odd cup in
McLarens on the lake Detlef Schmitz: the friendly
"Suitcase Man" Detlef: veteran and
misadventurer at each WSC
1987, 1990, 1993, 1996, 1999 World Solar Challenge 1993:
Japan invests millions in
solarcars Honda changes its strategy for
the WSC 1993 WSC and Sunrayce in the US and
other solar races in 1996
44.4 Solar Prize, Handcuffs and PlusEnergy Buildings
44.4.1 Swiss Solar Prize and Handcuffs Solar utilisation: from traffic to
building sector "Solar 91: for an energyindependent
Switzerland" First Solar Prize 1991 for world’s
biggest solar surface per
inhabitant Federal Councillor Adolf Ogi:
initiative, courage and solar
installations Handcuffs, excavators and solar
electricity Ren´e B¨ artschi: "most successful
Swiss governing councillor" Four times too much solar energy
and a winter bathe European Commission, US
Department of Energy and
Japanese Industry Best integrated solar
installations: without
overbuilding cultural land The solar mission of the Federal
Minister of Energy
44.4.2 Solar Energy on the Rise European PV Conference in
and popular initiative for solar
energy European Parliament: Swiss
Solar Prize—model for European
Solar Prize Bonn-Cologne-Brussels-
Amsterdam: more solar
electricity than in Australia Federal Chancellor Vranitzky
awards 1st European Solar Prize
in Vienna Chancellor Vranitzky: "Central
Europe free of nuclear power
plants" First European Solar Prize goes
to successful opponent of EDF City/Charter: implementation of
the goals of Rio on municipality
level Breakthrough in Parliament in
1997: one CHF billion for solar
energy Ucliva Agreement: first European
Shell Solar factory in Switzerland
44.4.3 Mephisto & Co against Solar Energy The wisdom of Arthur
Schopenhauer and solar energy J.W. Goethe and "a very good
dinner"—instead of solar energy Combat against renewable
energies Millions for deception of citizens Economic war against innovative
businesses Swiss economical functionaries:
best work for the Chinese
Communist Party Do authorities harass citizens
that are loyal to the constitution? Solar energy instead of
unconstitutional bureaucracy Constitutional right for solar
building permit: new law within
three months
44.4.4 Market-Based Compensation for
Renewable Energies Market-based compensation for
billions of fossil-nuclear
subsidies Prof. Dr. Ren´e Rhinow: best usage
of revenues for measures European Court of Justice 2001:
grid feed-in is not tax Democratic decision of the
electricity consumer on energy
44.4.5 Best Innovative Entrepreneurs for
Sustainable Economy Small- and medium-sized
entrepreneurs are the most
innovative Biogas—compo-gas: 1 kg of
banana peel = 1 km of car drive Solar house on the Federation
Square: built in 22 hours Swiss Solar Prize for first
PlusEnergy Building Shell’s solar factory in
Gelsenkirchen: "we want to earn
money" Lord Norman Foster on the 15th
Swiss Solar Prize 2005 PlusEnergy Buildings for Alpine
resort: 175% Self-Supply Energy-intensive industrial
PlusEnergy Building: 125%
self-supply Installed PV performance: world
leader in 1992—last in 2008 Sustainable economy: amateur
becomes world champion China could outrun all—
economically and ecologically
44.5 PEB Cover 75% ofWorld’s Energy Demand
44.5.1 From Solar Collectors to PlusEnergy
Buildings Conclusion of Tour de Sol, WSC as
well as Swiss and European Solar
Prize Energy efficiency: "Sine qua non"
of PlusEnergy Buildings PlusEnergy Buildings (PEB) with
a self-supply between 100% and
200% PV and refurbishment of a
6-family house: energy needs
reduced by 90% PV on PlusEnergy Buildings: the
level of building technology of
2010 PV and refurbishment of a
12-family house: energy needs
reduced by 93% Energy-intensive business
buildings as PlusEnergy
44.5.2 PV-PEB Cover 75% ofWorld’s Energy
44.5.3 Stanford: "Clearly, Enough Renewable
Energy Exists"
44.5.4 First European Award for PlusEnergy
Buildings of CHF(≈$) 100000

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"This book brings together a collection of lively, easy-to-read articles written by notable global leaders involved in the research and development of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The book is the inspiration of its editor, Prof. Wolfgang Palz, himself a true solar pioneer. In the opening chapters, Prof. Walz provides the historical context and a future vision of the world of solar power. This is followed by a compilation of contributions from numerous experts who provide entertaining and thought-provoking perspectives on PV’s history and development, including the early days of research and the gradual and, more recent, explosive growth of the technology as a global clean energy source. There are abundant stories and anecdotes about the many unique applications of PV technologies, the many scientists working to develop and market these technologies, and the key milestones in the history of this technology. This book is must reading for all who are working in the photovoltaic field and for all who are curious about the major role this technology is coming to play in our renewable energy future."

Dave Renne, President, International Solar Energy Society

"Solar Power for the World is quite a remarkable book as it details from many of the original pioneers the development of solar, and in particular PV, from its early beginnings to the current time. Initially photovoltaics was thought to be, by those outside of academic circles, just an interesting phenomenon of low efficiency and expensive and suitable only for use by space vehicles. However, the early visionaries laid the foundations for the multi-billion dollar industry it is now and helped develop solar to become a mainstream power source. Without the policy contributions from people like Hermann Scheer and the extension of the technologies to take in transport and storage the vision of towards 100 percent renewables for future power could not even be envisaged. This book is a great reference on the transition of thought from research to widespread public use of solar and all the different insights necessary to make the shift to low carbon energy. It is a very useful reference."

Monica Oliphant, Research Scientist, Specialising in Renewable Energy and Residential End Use Efficiency