1st Edition

The Routledge International Handbook of Gender Beliefs, Stereotype Threat, and Teacher Expectations

    380 Pages 8 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    The Routledge International Handbook of Gender Beliefs, Stereotype Threat, and Teacher Expectations presents, for the first time, the work of leading researchers exploring the synergies and interrelationships between these fields, and provides a catalytic platform for advancing theory, practice, policy and research from an integrated perspective.

    An understanding of how gender beliefs, stereotype threat, and teacher expectations interrelate is vital to creating safe, equitable, and encouraging learning spaces. The collection summarises how gender beliefs, stereotype threat, and teacher expectations act in association to influence gendered student achievement, engagement, and self-beliefs, and suggests ways toward rectifying their negative effects. The chapters are organised into four sections:

    • Gender Beliefs, Identity, Stereotypes, and Student Futures
    • Stereotype Threat
    • Teacher Expectations
    • Synergies and Solutions

    By examining synergies and solutions shared between the three fields, this book creates more meaningful, consistent, and permanent approaches to achieving gender identity safety, gendered scholastic equity, well-being, and positive futures for students.

    This comprehensive publication brings together cutting-edge research at the intersection of gender beliefs, stereotype threat, and teacher expectations. It is an essential reference for researchers and postgraduate students in education and gender studies as well as educational, social, and developmental psychology.


    Part 1: Gender beliefs, identity, stereotypes, and student futures

    1. Gender beliefs, gender stereotypes, and gender identity development

    Meagan M. Patterson and Morgan R. Vannoy

    2. Transgender inclusion and gender diversity in the education system: Addressing gender

    expansiveness and gender justice for all children and youth

    Wayne Martino, Shailja Jain, and Deepika Papneja

    3. Gender differences in Motivational beliefs and career aspirations from childhood to

    adolescence: An expectancy-value perspective

    Rebecca Lazarides, Elisa Oppermann, and, Hanna Gaspard

    4. Gender identity and academic engagement: How the perceived fit between students’

    gender and school work explains gendered pathways in education

    Ursula Kessels

    5. Gender and early musical experiences: Reflections on lessons learned

    Scott Harrison

    6. Female students’ belonging uncertainty in higher education STEM environments:

    Explanations and indications

    Lysann Zander and Bernhard Ertl

    Part 2: Stereotype threat

    7. Stereotype threat: Overview, current trends in research, and interventions to bolster

    achievement and learning

    Andre’ Oliver, Bryant N. Gomez, Katlyn Lee Milless, Maya Godbole, and Catherine Good

    8. Stereotype threat research in real-world gendered contexts: Looking to the future

    Penelope W. St J. Watson

    9. Classroom cues to social identity threat and safety for women in STEM

    Kathryn L. Boucher, Christine Logel, and Mary C. Murphy

    10. 'Boys don’t read poems!' Stereotype threat in the language education in boys

    Sylwia Bedyńska and Izabela Krejtz

    11. Stereotype threat beyond gender and mathematics: The cognitive burden of

    stigmatising health conditions

    Carlo Tomasetto

    12. Stereotype threat, ethnicity, and gender: An American perspective

    David H. Stevens and Frank C. Worrell

    13. The culture effect: How and why culture might weaken stereotype threat in non-Western


    Katherine Picho-Kiroga

    14. Whaia te angitū: Indigenous Māori students’ career aspirations—Gendered stereotypes,

    supports, and barriers

    Melinda Webber and Penelope W. St J. Watson

    Part 3: Teacher Expectations

    15. Teacher expectations: Considering implications for gender, mathematics and literacy

    achievement, and student beliefs

    Christine M. Rubie-Davies

    16. Teachers’ gender-based expectations and stereotypes for student reading

    Francesca Siems-Muntoni and Jan Retelsdorf

    17. Gendered aspirations to study maths-intensive subjects: How perceived teacher

    expectations matter in French-speaking Belgium

    Doriane Jaegers, Dominique Lafontaine and Virginie Dupont

    18. Teachers’ gendered STEM beliefs and their effects on student beliefs and achievement

    Eddie Denessen and Ard Lazonder

    19. Teacher expectations in a tertiary environment: The role of gender

    Rajshree Gopala Krishnan and Christine M. Rubie-Davies

    20. A systematic review on teachers’ stereotypical beliefs and expectations: Effects of the

    intersectionality of students’ gender and ethnicity

    Ineke M. Pit-ten Cate and Sabine Glock

    21. Math and literacy anxiety, study major preferences, and expectancy effects

    Sławomir Trusz

    22. Expecting girls to do better in languages and boys to do better in maths? Not always: An

    investigation of gender bias in teacher expectations in Chinese high schools

    Shengnan Wang, Lifeng Hao, Mengnan Li, Lingling Fan, and Ya Li

    Part 4: Synergies and Solutions

    23. Identity safe classrooms

    Becki Cohn-Vargas

    24. Fostering inclusivity in higher education through identity safety cues: A practical guide

    Kristina Howansky and Melanie Maimon

    25. Promoting cognitive and affective dispositions through collaborative learning

    Robyn M. Gillies

    26. Cooperative learning for social and emotional learning as a transformative pedagogy

    Ben Dyson and Seunghyun Baek

    27. Exploring Students’ perspectives working in single and mixed-gender groups in

    cooperative learning: A case study from Indonesia

    Sari Karmina, Rod Philpot, and Ben Dyson

    Part 5: Conclusion

    28. Furthering Theory and Practice to Promote Gender Equitable Outcomes for Youth

    Helen M. G. Watt


    Penelope W. St J. Watson is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Auckland’s Faculty of Education and Social Work. Her research interests are gender stereotypes and identity, gendered self-beliefs and expectations, and gender stereotype threat. She centres her interest in gender within the social psychology of the classroom. 

    Christine M. Rubie-Davies is a Professor at The University of Auckland. Her research interests are teacher expectations and beliefs that moderate expectancy effects, notably for disadvantaged groups. Widely published, she is an elected Fellow of three organisations. In 2023, she was made a Member of the New Zealand Order of Merit.

    Bernhard Ertl is full Professor at the Universität der Bundeswehr München. His research interests focus on factors that influence career decisions, persistence, and performance. His research roots are embedded in how learning with media research can implement support for students–and informing about gender stereotypes in the context of media.

    “This handbook brings together the best to outline their research, discuss the links between the three big topics of gender, stereotype threat, and expectations, and provide directions for moving forward. The handbook is voluminous, rich in explanation, up-to-date in asking the right questions, vast in depth, and evidence-informed.”

    John Hattie, Melbourne Laureate Professor Emeritus, Melbourne Graduate School of Education Chair, Board of the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership.


    “Researchers and practitioners have been gifted with a comprehensive and thought-provoking volume that examines three of the most important, timely, and challenging topics confronting contemporary education. This book should be on the “must-read” list for every educational researcher, aspiring or practicing teacher, or concerned citizen who wants to understand how teachers’ beliefs about gender, stereotype threats, and their expectations of students shape the learning environment for better or for worse.”

    Patricia Alexander, Distinguished University Professor, University of Maryland College Park.