Transport Planning and Traffic Safety: Making Cities, Roads, and Vehicles Safer, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Transport Planning and Traffic Safety

Making Cities, Roads, and Vehicles Safer, 1st Edition

Edited by Geetam Tiwari, Dinesh Mohan

CRC Press

362 pages | 114 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2016-05-18
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Description

In recognition of the importance of road safety as a major health issue, the World Health Organization has declared 2011-2021 the Decade of Safety Action. Several countries in Europe, North America, and Asia have been successful in reducing fatalities and injuries due to road traffic crashes. However, many low-income countries continue to experience high rates of traffic fatalities and injuries.

Transport Planning and Traffic Safety: Making Cities, Roads, and Vehicles Safer offers a source book for road safety training courses as well as an introductory textbook for graduate-level courses on road safety taught in engineering institutes. It brings together the international experiences and lessons learned from countries which have been successful in reducing traffic crashes and their applicability in low-income countries. The content is based on lectures delivered during an international course on transportation planning and traffic safety, sponsored annually by the Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme (TRIPP) at the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.

The book is interdisciplinary and aimed at professionals—traffic and road engineers, vehicle designers, law enforcers, and transport planners. The authors examine trends in performance of OECD countries and highlight the public health and systems approach of traffic safety with the vulnerable road user in focus. Topics include land use (transportation planning, mobility, and safety), safety education and legislation, accident analysis, road safety research, human tolerance to injury, vehicle design, safety in construction zones, safety in urban areas, traffic calming, public transportation, safety laws and policies, and pre-hospital care of the injured.

Table of Contents

Understanding the Road Safety Performance of OECD Countries

OVERVIEW

ECONOMIC DETERMINISM: ROAD SAFETY PERFORMANCE AS A DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME

RISK SUBSTITUTION: CAR OCCUPANTS ARE AT MUCH LOWER RISK THAN PEDESTRIANS

POLITICAL ACTION: THE ROLE OF INSTITUTIONS AND INTERVENTIONS

CONCLUSION: WHAT DOES THIS ALL MEAN FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES?

Road Traffic Injury as a Public Health Problem

INTRODUCTION

TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND HUMAN ERROR

ROAD TRAFFIC INJURY AS A DISEASE

DEVELOPING INJURY CONTROL MEASURES

SUMMARY

Public Health Burden of Road Traffic Injuries

HEALTH IMPACTS OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

MAGNITUDE OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH BURDEN OF ROAD TRAFFIC

MEASURING THE LOCAL BURDEN OF INJURIES

Land Use—Transportation Planning, Mobility, and Safety

INTRODUCTION

ROAD TRAFFIC CRASHES AND LAND USE PLANNING

CONFLICTS AND TRADE-OFFS IN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING

TRANSPORT—LAND USE PATTERNS IN LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES

IMPACT OF TRIP LENGTH AND MODE OF TRAVEL ON FATALITY RISK

MOBILITY AND SAFETY CONFLICT

Safety Promotion: Education and Legislation

INTRODUCTION

INFLUENCE OF SYSTEMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT ON ERROR

LIMITATIONS OF ROAD USERS

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

CONCLUSIONS

Recording of Traffic Crashes

INTRODUCTION

TRAFFIC CRASH DATA

CONCLUSIONS

Traffic Conflict Techniques: Some Data to Supplement Accident Analysis

INTRODUCTION

SWEDISH TRAFFIC CONFLICTS TECHNIQUE

Statistical Considerations in Road Safety Research

INTRODUCTION

SAMPLING WHAT WE STUDY

NON-CONSTANT EXPOSURE

COUNTING RARE EVENTS

MULTIPLE FACTORS OPERATING IN DIFFERENT PHASES

INTERVENTION APPROACHES—TACKLE THE WORST CASES

INTERVENTION APPROACHES—DESIGN OPTIONS

UNDERSTANDING RELATIONSHIPS—STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

STATISTICAL TESTING AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Speed and Its Effects on Road Traffic Crashes

INTRODUCTION

THE EVIDENCE

SPEED LIMITS

ROAD STRUCTURE AND SPEED

CONCLUSIONS

Human Tolerance to Injury: Role of Biomechanics and Ergonomics

INTRODUCTION

METHODS OF BIOMECHANICS RESEARCH

BIOMECHANICS AND MOTOR VEHICLE OCCUPANT INJURIES

ERGONOMICS

CONCLUSION

Safer Vehicle Design

INTRODUCTION

ADVANCED METHODOLOGIES

CONCLUSIONS

Risk Evaluation and Road Safety

INTRODUCTION

RISK INDICATORS IN PUBLIC HEALTH

RISK INDICATORS IN ROAD TRANSPORT

MODELS OF ACCIDENT FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY

CONCLUSION

Investigating Driving Failures and Their Factors by In-Depth Accident Studies

INTRODUCTION

IN-DEPTH ACCIDENT STUDIES AS COMPLEMENTARY TOOLS FOR ROAD SAFETY

IN-DEPTH STUDY OF POWERED TWO-WHEELER MECHANISMS

CONCLUSION

Human Body Models

INTRODUCTION

MODELING AND METHODS

OVERVIEW OF WHOLE BODY MODELS

DISCUSSION

Highway Safety in India

INTRODUCTION

TRAFFIC CRASHES ON INDIAN HIGHWAYS

TRAFFIC ON NATIONAL HIGHWAYS AND STATE HIGHWAYS

SAFETY ON NATIONAL HIGHWAYS

LITERATURE REVIEW

CONCLUSIONS

Highway Construction Zone Safety Audit

INTRODUCTION

CHALLENGES IN MAINTAINING HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION ZONE SAFETY

THE RISKS TO ROAD SAFETY AT CONSTRUCTION ZONES

NEED FOR SAFETY AUDIT

TASKS INVOLVED IN SAFETY AUDIT

AUDIT STEPS

ILLUSTRATION OF AUDIT FOR THE LMNHP

CONCLUSION

Road Safety in Urban Areas

INTRODUCTION

THE TRADITIONAL "PROFESSIONAL VIEW" OF TRAFFIC SAFETY IN URBAN AREAS

A SYSTEMIC APPROACH: RISK AND ACCIDENTS

THE URBAN AREA—A PRODUCT OF THE HUMAN BRAIN

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SAFE AND UNSAFE ROADS IN URBAN AREAS

Urban Safety and Mobility

INTRODUCTION

URBAN STREETS

DESIGNING SAFE URBAN STREETS

INTERSECTIONS

URBAN ROAD SAFETY AUDIT

CONCLUSION

Urban Safety and Traffic Calming

INTRODUCTION

TRAFFIC CALMING

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

Public Transport and Safety

INTRODUCTION

PUBLIC TRANSPORT AND SAFETY QUALITY OF PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE ENVIRONMENT

PUBLIC TRANSPORT AND TRAFFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIAN CITIES

QUALITY OF PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE ENVIRONMENT

PUBLIC TRANSPORT, MOTORISED TWO-WHEELER, AND POLLUTION TAX

DEVELOPMENT OF A BUS COMMUTER SAFETY POLICY

CONCLUSIONS

Road Safety Management from the National to the Local Level

INTRODUCTION: THE NEED FOR ROAD SAFETY MANAGEMENT

ROAD SAFETY POLICY-MAKING

A REPRESENTATION OF ROAD SAFETY MANAGEMENT

THE ACTORS (OR STAKEHOLDERS) INVOLVED

DEVELOPING THE ROAD SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

CAPACITY BUILDING

CONCLUSION

Road Safety Law and Policy

INTRODUCTION: ROAD SAFETY IN INDIA—THE PROBLEM AND ITS CONTEXT

LEGISLATIVE AND POLICY (NON) RESPONSE

TRAFFIC SAFETY POLICIES AND ENABLING LEGISLATION

ROAD SAFETY AND THE COURTS

CONCLUSION

Pre-Hospital Care of the Injured

INTRODUCTION

ATLS vs. BLS

About the Editors

Geetam Tiwari is coordinator of the Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme (TRIPP) at IIT Delhi and MoUD chair professor for transport planning at the Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi. She earned a Bachelor of Architecture from the University of Roorkee, India, Master of Urban Planning and Policy and a Ph.D. in transport planning and policy from the University of Illinois, Chicago. She has been working in the area of traffic and transport planning, focusing on pedestrians, bicycles, and bus systems. She is editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion.

Dinesh Mohan is Volvo chair professor emeritus at the Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. He earned his Ph.D. degree in biomechanics from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. His research includes vibrations of anisotropic plates; mechanical properties of human aortic tissue; head, chest, and femur injury tolerance; injuries in human free falls; effectiveness of helmets; and the first evaluation of airbags in real-world crashes. He continues to work on epidemiology of road traffic crashes and injuries in rural India, pedestrians, bicycle and motorcycle crash modeling, and health effects of road transport.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC009160
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / Transport
TEC017000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Health & Safety
TEC032000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Quality Control