1st Edition

Transport Planning and Traffic Safety
Making Cities, Roads, and Vehicles Safer





ISBN 9781498751452
Published May 18, 2016 by CRC Press
386 Pages 114 B/W Illustrations

USD $140.00

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Book Description

In recognition of the importance of road safety as a major health issue, the World Health Organization has declared 2011-2021 the Decade of Safety Action. Several countries in Europe, North America, and Asia have been successful in reducing fatalities and injuries due to road traffic crashes. However, many low-income countries continue to experience high rates of traffic fatalities and injuries.

Transport Planning and Traffic Safety: Making Cities, Roads, and Vehicles Safer offers a source book for road safety training courses as well as an introductory textbook for graduate-level courses on road safety taught in engineering institutes. It brings together the international experiences and lessons learned from countries which have been successful in reducing traffic crashes and their applicability in low-income countries. The content is based on lectures delivered during an international course on transportation planning and traffic safety, sponsored annually by the Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme (TRIPP) at the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.

The book is interdisciplinary and aimed at professionals—traffic and road engineers, vehicle designers, law enforcers, and transport planners. The authors examine trends in performance of OECD countries and highlight the public health and systems approach of traffic safety with the vulnerable road user in focus. Topics include land use (transportation planning, mobility, and safety), safety education and legislation, accident analysis, road safety research, human tolerance to injury, vehicle design, safety in construction zones, safety in urban areas, traffic calming, public transportation, safety laws and policies, and pre-hospital care of the injured.

Table of Contents

Understanding the Road Safety Performance of OECD Countries
OVERVIEW
ECONOMIC DETERMINISM: ROAD SAFETY PERFORMANCE AS A DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME
RISK SUBSTITUTION: CAR OCCUPANTS ARE AT MUCH LOWER RISK THAN PEDESTRIANS
POLITICAL ACTION: THE ROLE OF INSTITUTIONS AND INTERVENTIONS
CONCLUSION: WHAT DOES THIS ALL MEAN FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES?

Road Traffic Injury as a Public Health Problem
INTRODUCTION
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND HUMAN ERROR
ROAD TRAFFIC INJURY AS A DISEASE
DEVELOPING INJURY CONTROL MEASURES
SUMMARY

Public Health Burden of Road Traffic Injuries
HEALTH IMPACTS OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
MAGNITUDE OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH BURDEN OF ROAD TRAFFIC
MEASURING THE LOCAL BURDEN OF INJURIES

Land Use—Transportation Planning, Mobility, and Safety
INTRODUCTION
ROAD TRAFFIC CRASHES AND LAND USE PLANNING
CONFLICTS AND TRADE-OFFS IN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING
TRANSPORT—LAND USE PATTERNS IN LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES
IMPACT OF TRIP LENGTH AND MODE OF TRAVEL ON FATALITY RISK
MOBILITY AND SAFETY CONFLICT

Safety Promotion: Education and Legislation
INTRODUCTION
INFLUENCE OF SYSTEMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT ON ERROR
LIMITATIONS OF ROAD USERS
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
CONCLUSIONS

Recording of Traffic Crashes
INTRODUCTION
TRAFFIC CRASH DATA
CONCLUSIONS

Traffic Conflict Techniques: Some Data to Supplement Accident Analysis
INTRODUCTION
SWEDISH TRAFFIC CONFLICTS TECHNIQUE

Statistical Considerations in Road Safety Research
INTRODUCTION
SAMPLING WHAT WE STUDY
NON-CONSTANT EXPOSURE
COUNTING RARE EVENTS
MULTIPLE FACTORS OPERATING IN DIFFERENT PHASES
INTERVENTION APPROACHES—TACKLE THE WORST CASES
INTERVENTION APPROACHES—DESIGN OPTIONS
UNDERSTANDING RELATIONSHIPS—STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
STATISTICAL TESTING AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE
CONCLUDING REMARKS

Speed and Its Effects on Road Traffic Crashes
INTRODUCTION
THE EVIDENCE
SPEED LIMITS
ROAD STRUCTURE AND SPEED
CONCLUSIONS

Human Tolerance to Injury: Role of Biomechanics and Ergonomics
INTRODUCTION
METHODS OF BIOMECHANICS RESEARCH
BIOMECHANICS AND MOTOR VEHICLE OCCUPANT INJURIES
ERGONOMICS
CONCLUSION

Safer Vehicle Design
INTRODUCTION
ADVANCED METHODOLOGIES
CONCLUSIONS

Risk Evaluation and Road Safety
INTRODUCTION
RISK INDICATORS IN PUBLIC HEALTH
RISK INDICATORS IN ROAD TRANSPORT
MODELS OF ACCIDENT FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY
CONCLUSION

Investigating Driving Failures and Their Factors by In-Depth Accident Studies
INTRODUCTION
IN-DEPTH ACCIDENT STUDIES AS COMPLEMENTARY TOOLS FOR ROAD SAFETY
IN-DEPTH STUDY OF POWERED TWO-WHEELER MECHANISMS
CONCLUSION

Human Body Models
INTRODUCTION
MODELING AND METHODS
OVERVIEW OF WHOLE BODY MODELS
DISCUSSION

Highway Safety in India
INTRODUCTION
TRAFFIC CRASHES ON INDIAN HIGHWAYS
TRAFFIC ON NATIONAL HIGHWAYS AND STATE HIGHWAYS
SAFETY ON NATIONAL HIGHWAYS
LITERATURE REVIEW
CONCLUSIONS

Highway Construction Zone Safety Audit
INTRODUCTION
CHALLENGES IN MAINTAINING HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION ZONE SAFETY
THE RISKS TO ROAD SAFETY AT CONSTRUCTION ZONES
NEED FOR SAFETY AUDIT
TASKS INVOLVED IN SAFETY AUDIT
AUDIT STEPS
ILLUSTRATION OF AUDIT FOR THE LMNHP
CONCLUSION

Road Safety in Urban Areas
INTRODUCTION
THE TRADITIONAL "PROFESSIONAL VIEW" OF TRAFFIC SAFETY IN URBAN AREAS
A SYSTEMIC APPROACH: RISK AND ACCIDENTS
THE URBAN AREA—A PRODUCT OF THE HUMAN BRAIN
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SAFE AND UNSAFE ROADS IN URBAN AREAS

Urban Safety and Mobility
INTRODUCTION
URBAN STREETS
DESIGNING SAFE URBAN STREETS
INTERSECTIONS
URBAN ROAD SAFETY AUDIT
CONCLUSION

Urban Safety and Traffic Calming
INTRODUCTION
TRAFFIC CALMING
GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

Public Transport and Safety
INTRODUCTION
PUBLIC TRANSPORT AND SAFETY QUALITY OF PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE ENVIRONMENT
PUBLIC TRANSPORT AND TRAFFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIAN CITIES
QUALITY OF PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE ENVIRONMENT
PUBLIC TRANSPORT, MOTORISED TWO-WHEELER, AND POLLUTION TAX
DEVELOPMENT OF A BUS COMMUTER SAFETY POLICY
CONCLUSIONS

Road Safety Management from the National to the Local Level
INTRODUCTION: THE NEED FOR ROAD SAFETY MANAGEMENT
ROAD SAFETY POLICY-MAKING
A REPRESENTATION OF ROAD SAFETY MANAGEMENT
THE ACTORS (OR STAKEHOLDERS) INVOLVED
DEVELOPING THE ROAD SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
CAPACITY BUILDING
CONCLUSION

Road Safety Law and Policy
INTRODUCTION: ROAD SAFETY IN INDIA—THE PROBLEM AND ITS CONTEXT
LEGISLATIVE AND POLICY (NON) RESPONSE
TRAFFIC SAFETY POLICIES AND ENABLING LEGISLATION
ROAD SAFETY AND THE COURTS
CONCLUSION

Pre-Hospital Care of the Injured
INTRODUCTION
ATLS vs. BLS

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Editor(s)

Biography

Geetam Tiwari is coordinator of the Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme (TRIPP) at IIT Delhi and MoUD chair professor for transport planning at the Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi. She earned a Bachelor of Architecture from the University of Roorkee, India, Master of Urban Planning and Policy and a Ph.D. in transport planning and policy from the University of Illinois, Chicago. She has been working in the area of traffic and transport planning, focusing on pedestrians, bicycles, and bus systems. She is editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion.

Dinesh Mohan is Volvo chair professor emeritus at the Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. He earned his Ph.D. degree in biomechanics from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. His research includes vibrations of anisotropic plates; mechanical properties of human aortic tissue; head, chest, and femur injury tolerance; injuries in human free falls; effectiveness of helmets; and the first evaluation of airbags in real-world crashes. He continues to work on epidemiology of road traffic crashes and injuries in rural India, pedestrians, bicycle and motorcycle crash modeling, and health effects of road transport.