Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration Handbook: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration Handbook

2nd Edition

By Munir Cheryan

CRC Press

552 pages

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pub: 1998-01-26
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Description

Soon after its publication in 1987, the first edition of Ultrafiltration Handbook became recognized as the leading handbook on ultrafiltration technology. Reviews in professional journals praised it as an authoritative and substantive information resource on this technology. Now a completely, updated and expanded edition is available under the title, Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration Handbook.

This practical handbook systematically covers the basics of this technology from its scientific fundamentals to a wide range of industrial applications. The presentation is clear and concise with the emphasis on practical use. Many schematics and micrographs illustrate membranes, equipment and processes. Numerous tables and graphs provide useful data on specifications and performance.

The updated information is useful to all those involved in the use of separation and filtration in industrial processes.

Reviews

"The value of this work lies in the extensive compilation of information on ultrafiltration membranes and their applications. The engineering aspects of ultrafiltration are also dealt with thoroughly."

--Hans Wijmans in Membrane Technology & Research

"A comprehensive textbook on ultrafiltration has been needed for some time. Such a book is now available . . . it is well-written and useful. . . "

--C. H. Amundson, Professor, University of Wisconsin, Madison, in Food Technology

"This book is a comprehensive reference. . . . Recommended for engineering collections."

--R. Darby, Texas A&M University, in Choice (American Library Association)

". . . Ultrafiltration Handbook covers all aspects of ultrafiltration. The book is too well-written and easy to read to be a reference, but its too fact-filled and thorough to be anything but a reference book . . . .If ones work in any way involves separations technology, this handbook is invaluable."

--Jane B. James, Ph.D., Pall Corporation, Microbiology Laboratory, in SIAM News (Society for Industrial Microbiology)

"Overall, the book is well organized with a clear and attractive lay-out. . . . An excellent book which will undoubtedly become a standard work of reference both in companies manufacturing and utilizing UF systems. It contains a wealth of useful practical experience which is not to be found in much of the literature, thereby fulfilling a major criterion of any work represented as a handbook. . . . It is a very good value indeed."

--Pro Bio Tech, December 1987

"It contains a wealth of information about the UF process, and it would be an excellent addition to any library. In addition, it would make an excellent textbook for teaching the fundamentals of UF."

--Scott B. McCray, in Journal of Membrane Science

"I have profited much by the vast amount of useful information given in the book. Since your approach to the subject is popular, and your style of writing is appealing, the book is bound to be a . . . success."

--S. Sourirajan (co-inventor of the Sourirajan-Lobel synthetic membrane)

Table of Contents

Each chapter ends with a section of references.

Introduction

Definition and classification of membrane separation processes

Historical developments

Physical chemistry of membrane separations: Chemical potential and osmosis, Vapor pressure, Osmotic pressure and chemical potential

Membrane Chemistry

Definitions and classification: Depth vs. screen filters, Microporous vs. asymmetric membranes

General methods of membrane manufacture: Phase Inversion Process of Membrane Manufacture

Polymers used in membrane manufacture: Cellulose Acetate, Polyamide membranes, Polysulfone membranes, Other polymeric materials

Composite membranes

Inorganic membranes: Properties of inorganic membranes

Membrane Properties

Pore size: Bubble point and pressure techniques, Direct microscopic observation

Predicting flux from pore statistics

Passage (challenge) tests: Microfiltration membranes, Ultrafiltration membranes

Factors affecting retentivity of membranes: Size of the molecule, Shape of the molecule, Membrane material, Presence of other solutes, Operating parameters, Lot-to-lot variability, Membrane configuration, Fouling and adsorption effects, The microenvironment

Performance and Engineering Models

The velocity boundary layer

The concentration boundary layer

Models for predicting flux: the pressure-controlled region

Concentration polarization

Mass transfer (film theory) model: Determining the mass transfer coefficient, Example

The resistance model

Osmotic pressure model for limiting flux

Factors affecting flux: operating parameters: Feed concentration, Temperature, Flow rate and turbulence

Physical properties of liquid streams: Density, Viscosity, Diffusion coefficients

Experiment vs. theory: the "flux paradox"

Design factors affecting flux

Equipment

Laboratory scale devices

Industrial equipment: Tubular modules, Hollow fibers, Plate units, Spiral-wound

Special modules: Rotary modules, Vibrating modules, Dean Vortices

Summary

Fouling and Cleaning

Characteristics of fouling: Water flux

Consequences of fouling

Mathematical models of fouling

Factors affecting fouling: Membrane properties, Solute properties, Process engineering factors affecting fouling

Flux enhancement: Turbulence promoters/inserts/baffles, Back-flushing, -pulsing, -shocking and washing, Uniform transmembrane pressure/co-current permeate flow, Permeate back-pressure, Intermittent jets, Pulsatile flow, Electrical methods

Summary: Membrane Fouling

Cleaning membranes: Important factors during cleaning, Typical foulants and soils, Cleaning chemicals, Sanitizers

Process Design

Physics of the ultrafiltration process: Example

Modes of operation: Discontinuous diafiltration (DD), Continuous diafiltration (CD), Dialysis ultrafiltration

Batch vs. continuous operation: Batch operation, Single pass, Feed-and-bleed, Multistage operations, Example, Control methods

Minimum process time

Fractionation of macromolecules

Energy requirements: Example

Cost and process economics: Arrays and configurations, System cost

Summary

Applications

Electrocoat paint

The dairy industry: Fluid milk and fermented products, Cheese manufacture, Milk microfiltration, Cheese whey ultrafiltration, Microfiltration of whey

Water treatment

Wastewaters: Oily wastewater, Stillage from bioethanol plants, Caustic and acid recovery, Brine recovery, Printing ink, Laundry wastewater, Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration

Textile industry

Latex emulsions

Pulp and paper industry

Tanning and leather industries

Sugar refining

Soybean and other vegetable proteins

Vegetable oils: Degumming, Deacidification, Bleaching, Removal of metals, Dewaxing, Clarifying Frying Oils

Corn and other grains: Dextrose clarification, Protein processing

Animal products: Red meat, Gelatin, Egg processing, Fish processing, Poultry industry

Biotechnology applications: Separation and harvesting of microbial cells, Enzyme recovery, Affinity ultrafiltration, Membrane bioreactors

Fruit juices and extracts

Alcoholic beverages: Wine, Beer

Appendices

List of manufacturers of membrane equipment

Conversion factors

Books and general

Glossary of terms

Index

More than 350 Tables and Figures

Useful reference data is provided in 85 tables. Numerous schematics illustrate membranes, modules, equipment, and processes. Micrographs illustrate membranes and filtration. Here is a small sampling of this supplementary material. * Tables: Characteristics of membrane processes Comparison of energy requirements and costs between evaporation and membrane processes Methods of manufacture of synthetic membranes Materials used for the manufacture of membranes Properties of membrane filters requiring standardization Morphological parameters and bubble points for selected MF membranes-Pore size and surface porosity of ultrafiltration membranes Selected values of gel concentration-Diffusion coefficients-Relationship between channel size and surface area:volume ratio of membrane modules Hollow fibers from various manufacturers-Specifications of spiral-wound membranes from various manufacturers-Typical cleaning reagents and their modes of action-Operating economy of UF plants processing whole milk for cheese manufacture-Water purification process comparison Examples of affinity ultrafiltration

Figures: Useful ranges of various separation processes-Classification of filters-Micrograph of multistage depth filter-Schematic representation of ultrastructure of an asymmetric (skinned) membrane-Typical structures of polyamide membranes-Comparison of the performance of commercial cellulose acetate and thin-film composite (polyamide) membranes-Ceramic membrane modules in their housing-Relationship between pore size, molecular weight of ideal solutes, and ratings of ideal and real membranes Permeability of large and small molecules through large and small pore membranes-Schematic representation of the cross section of typical asymmetric UF or MF membrane-Schematic of concentration polarization during UF of colloidal and macromolecular solutes . . .-Schematic of typical plate type membrane module-Multistage filtration sowing several feed-and-bleed systems connected in series-Membrane processing of cheese whey-Selection criteria of separation methods in biopro- cessing

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013060
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
TEC012000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Food Science