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Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources
Exploitation and Development




ISBN 9781498759403
Published June 14, 2016 by CRC Press
860 Pages - 752 Color Illustrations

 
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Book Description

As the shale revolution continues in North America, unconventional resource markets are emerging on every continent. In the next eight to ten years, more than 100,000 wells and one- to two-million hydraulic fracturing stages could be executed, resulting in close to one trillion dollars in industry spending. This growth has prompted professionals experienced in conventional oil and gas exploitation and development to acquire practical knowledge of the unconventional realm.

Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources: Exploitation and Development provides a comprehensive understanding of the latest advances in the exploitation and development of unconventional resources. With an emphasis on shale, this book:

  • Addresses all aspects of the exploitation and development process, from data mining and accounting to drilling, completion, stimulation, production, and environmental issues
  • Offers in-depth coverage of sub-surface measurements (geological, geophysical, petrophysical, geochemical, and geomechanical) and their interpretation
  • Discusses the use of microseismic, fiber optic, and tracer reservoir monitoring technologies and JewelSuite™ reservoir modeling software
  • Presents the viewpoints of internationally respected experts and researchers from leading exploration and production (E&P) companies and academic institutions
  • Explores future trends in reservoir technologies for unconventional resources development

Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources: Exploitation and Development aids geologists, geophysicists, petrophysicists, geomechanic specialists, and drilling, completion, stimulation, production, and reservoir engineers in the environmentally safe exploitation and development of unconventional resources like shale.

Table of Contents

Foreword; Steve Holditch
The Shale Revolution
Industry Image
Summary
References

Introduction; Usman Ahmed and I. Yucel Akkutlu
Setting the Stage
Mission and Scope
Defining Unconventional Resources
Chapter Summary
The Way Forward
References

Characteristics of Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources; Usman Ahmed and D. Nathan Meehan
Foreword
Introduction to Unconventional Resources
Workflow to Address Unconventional Resource Development
The Unconventional Resource Triangle
Characteristics of Shale Oil and Gas
Specific Considerations for Tight Oil and Gas
Specific Considerations for Coalbed Methane
References

The Unconventional Basins and Plays—North America, the Rest of the World, and Emerging Basins; Robert Kennedy, Lucy Xin Luo, and Vello Kuuskra
Introduction
US Shale Gas, Oil Plays, and Basins
Canada Shale Oil and Shale Gas Basins
Major Shale Oil and Shale Gas Basins in Rest of the World
References

Unconventional Resources Workflow—Exploitation and Development; William Knecht and Shanna Sambol-Koseoglu
Foreword
Introduction
Workflows in Unconventional Resource Development
Challenges and Background
The Common Solution
The Ideal Solution
Identify and Evaluate Resource Potential
Build and Modify Reservoir Models
Refine Resource Evaluation and Generate a Field Development Plan
Determine the Optimal Horizontal Well Placement
Achieve Drilling Precision and Efficiency
Characterize the Lateral for Fracture Stage Placement
Determine the Optimal Horizontal Hydraulic Fracture Stage Placement
Design a Fracture Program and Treatment
Microseismic Fracture Monitoring Services
Optimize Production Flow
Refracture to Improve Ultimate Recovery
Holistic Approach to Water Management
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References

Seismic Reservoir Characterization Applications for Unconventional Resources; Rob Mayer, Gabino Castillo, Kevin Chesser, Guy Oliver, Chi Vinh Ly, Simon Voisey, Norbert Van de Coevering, and Antoine Bouziat
Introduction
Overview of Surface Seismic Utilization in Unconventional Plays
Seismic Survey Design and Acquisition Considerations
Seismic Processing
Seismic Attribute Interpretation
Validation Techniques
Case Study
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
Case Study

Pilot Projects in Unconventional Resources Development; Michael A. Addis, Hans-Christian Freitag, and Alfredo Mendez
Introduction
Pilot Projects
Pilot Project Design and Review to Capture Improvements
Concluding Remarks and Future Trends
References

Formation Evaluation and Reservoir Characterization of Source Rock Reservoirs; Matt W. Bratovich and Frank Walles
Overview of Formation Evaluation Objectives for Reservoir Characterization of Source Rock Reservoirs
Technologies Utilized for Formation Evaluation and Reservoir Characterization of Source Rock Reservoirs
Organic Carbon Quantification
Lithology and Mineralogy Determination
Porosity Determination
Permeability Determination
Fluid Saturation Determination
Geological and Geomechanical Characterization
Utilization of Formation Evaluation Results to Optimize Lateral Well Placement and Lateral Characterization for Stimulation Program Design
References

Role of Geomechanical Engineering in Unconventional Resources Developments; Michael A. Addis, Sanjeev Bordoloi, Javier A. Franquet, Patrick J. Hooyman, Robert S. Hurt, Julie E. Kowan, Abbas Khaksar, Neal B. Nagel, and See H. Ong
Introduction
Rock Characterization
In-Situ Stress and Pore Pressure Characterization
Wellbore Stability
Geomechanical Engineering Considerations in Shale Stimulation
Geomechanics Considerations in CBM Developments
Conclusion and Future Trends
References

Laboratory Tests and Considerations to Complement the Overall Reservoir Understanding; Brian J. Davis, Russell Maharidge, and Joel Walls
Introduction
Reservoir Samples for Lab Analysis
Unconventional Rock Types
Core Preservation
Laboratory Analyses
Digital Rocks Methods for Mudstones: An Example from the Wolfcamp Formation
Final Words
Acknowledgments
References

Reservoir Engineering Aspects of Unconventional Oil and Gas; D. Nathan Meehan and Usman Ahmed
The Conventional Approach
The Unconventional Dilemma
Well Variability Issues
Impact of Fracture Characteristics
Drainage Volume
Other Reservoir Issues
References

The Art of Data Mining and Its Impact on Unconventional Reservoir Development; Randy F. LaFollette, Lucy Xin Luo, and Ming Zhong
The Importance of Data Mining in Unconventional Reservoirs
Evolution of Data Mining
Data Availability
Data Quality Control
Analysis Methods
Case Studies
Concluding Remarks
References

Unconventional Reserves and Resources Accounting and Booking; Rawdon Seager
Introduction
What Do We Mean by Reserves Booking?
Definitions for Reserves and Resources
What Do We Mean by Unconventional Resources?
Approach to Assessing Reserves and Resources in Unconventional Reservoirs
Closing Remarks
References

Production Evaluation and Forecasting; George Vassilellis, Craig Cipolla, James C. Erdle, and Usman Ahmed
Introduction
Production Forecasting
Conventional Techniques for Characterizing Fracture Geometry
Numerical Reservoir Modeling
Stimulated Reservoir Volume, Microseismic Data, and Production Evaluation and Forecasting
Completion Optimization and RTA in Unconventional Reservoirs
Production Forecast Approximation
Numerical Models
References

Drilling Systems for Unconventionals; Rajdeep Gupta, Deepak K. Khatri, Ashish K. Goel, and Gregory L. Devenish
The Early Days
Drilling Unconventional Wells
Drilling Systems
The Changing Needs of Unconventional Drilling
Concluding Remarks
References

Multistage Completion Systems for Unconventionals; William (Aaron) Burton
Basics of Unconventional Wellbore Completions
Plug-and-Perforate Completion Systems
Ball-Activated Completion Systems
Coiled Tubing Activated Completion Systems
Benefits and Considerations of Each Completion System
Operational Comparison of Each Completion System
Services Correlation
Concluding Remarks
Acknowledgments
References

Stimulation of Unconventional Reservoirs; Tony Martin, Sergey Kotov, Scott G. Nelson, and David Cramer
Authors’ Note
Introduction to Unconventional Fracturing
Fracturing Fluids and Proppants
Fracture Design Considerations
Geomechanics and Fracture Modeling
Perforation Strategy
Calibration and Diagnostic Tests
Unconventional Fracturing Operations
Acknowledgments
Nomenclature
Symbols
References

Flow Assurance; Stephen Szymczak
Introduction
Inorganic Scale
Paraffin
Asphaltene
Bacteria and Bacterially Related Corrosion
Program Design and Operations
Summary and Conclusion
Acknowledgment
References

Artificial Lift Technologies; Alex Vilcinskas
Introduction
Unconventional Oil Plays and General Issues
Summary of Application Issues
Temperature
Well Depth
Production Decline (Depletion)
Oil Producing Unconventional Plays in the US: Electric Submersible
Gas Handling Theory
Conclusion
References

Monitoring Technologies—Microseismic, Fiber Optic, and Tracers; Pierre-François Roux, Edmund Leung, Cooper C. Gill, and Usman Ahmed
Introduction to Monitoring Technologies
Background: About Microseismic
Fiber Optic Monitoring
Permanent Downhole Inflow Tracer Monitoring Technology
Conclusion
References

Rejuvenating Unconventional Resources; Robert Kennedy, Iman Oraki Kohshour, and Usman Ahmed
Introduction
The Potential Refracturing Market for North American and United States Shale Wells
Initial Fracturing Wellbore Completion Types
Reasons to Refracture
Why Initial Fracture Treatments Are Either Unsuccessful or Fail Over Time
Why Refracturing Is Successful
Refracturing Procedures
Refracturing Candidate Selection
The Economics of Refracturing
Refracture Case Histories
Recommendations for Refracturing
Concluding Remarks about Refractures
ESOR−Enhanced Shale Oil Recovery
Case Study
EOR Concluding Remarks
References

Environmental Issues in Unconventional Oil and Gas Resource Development; D. Nathan Meehan
Introduction
Social License to Operate
Environmental Issues in Unconventional Activities
Outlook on Federal and State Developments
Acknowledgment
References

Case Studies, Accessing JewelSuite™ Software and Data; Marie P. Meyet, Iman Oraki Kohshour, Sachin Ghorpade, Seun Oyinloye, Randall Cade, and Usman Ahmed
Introduction
Software Access
Eagle Ford
Haynesville
References

New Considerations and Future Trends in Reservoir Technologies for Unconventional Resources Development; I. Yucel Akkutlu
Foreword
Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Maturation, Fracture Initiation, and Propagation
Stress-Sensitive Microfractured Shale Matrix Permeability
Resource Shales as Naturally Occurring Nanoporous Materials
From Reservoir Uncertainties to Reservoir Anomalies
Permeability of Organic-Rich Nanoporous Shale with Microfractures
Improved Oil Recovery
References

Epilogue; Usman Ahmed, D. Nathan Meehan, and I. Yucel Akkutlu
Nature of Matrix-Fracture Duality
From Reservoir Uncertainties to Reservoir Anomalies
Reservoir Engineering Discipline in Crisis
A Shift in Paradigms on Its Way
Terms and Definitions

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Editor(s)

Biography

Usman Ahmed is CTO of unconventional oil and gas resources technology and executive technical advisor to WellDog, and more recently, vice president and chief reservoir engineer at Baker Hughes. He previously worked for Schlumberger, TerraTek, and his own reservoir and production engineering consulting firm, Energy Resources International. He has two patents and more than three decades of petroleum engineering experience. He is a Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) distinguished member, a recognized technical and professional industry leader, and the author and coauthor of more than 100 industry papers and textbooks. He was an SPE distinguished speaker in 2004-2005 and 2013-2014, and has been invited to numerous events as a keynote speaker and panelist. He holds a B.Sc. and M.Sc. in petroleum engineering from Texas A&M University.

D. Nathan Meehan serves as senior executive advisor to Baker Hughes. He was previously president of CMG Petroleum Consulting, vice president of engineering for Occidental Oil and Gas, and general manager of exploration and production services for Union Pacific Resources. He was recently elected the 2016 president of the Society of Petroleum (SPE) Engineers. He is an SPE distinguished member with more than 38 years of experience in reservoir engineering, reserve estimation, hydraulic fracturing, and horizontal wells. He holds a B.Sc. in physics from the Georgia Institute of Technology, M.Sc. in petroleum engineering from the University of Oklahoma, and Ph.D. in petroleum engineering from Stanford University. Widely published and highly decorated, Dr. Meehan is a licensed professional engineer in four states.

Reviews

"This cornerstone-edited volume sets a benchmark for understanding the complexity of unconventional oil and gas resources. The breath of the topics covered and level within each topic have set a high bar for any future book in this space. If you are in this business, you need to have this book. If you are considering this business, you could stumble without this book. It should be required reading at any university with programs in petroleum science. For those that don’t know the two editors, Usman Ahmed and Dr. Nathan Meehan, we are getting a volume that is scrutinized by two top-class industry scientists with vast technology insight who know the topics covered. In my judgment, if you could only have one book on this topic, this is it."
—Dr. Raymond Levey, Director, Energy and Geoscience Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA

"The authors should be commended for carefully and painstakingly assembling this comprehensive collection of background data, methods, and workflows current to the industry with insight into potential areas of ongoing research and investigations (e.g., emerging resource areas, formation evaluation, data analytics, etc.). For the practitioner, this text serves as a valuable reference tool and guide. For the researcher, this text provides insight into current methods and workflows, and aids further investigations into emerging areas of unconventional resources. Finally, this text is an invaluable resource to accompany advanced undergraduate and postgraduate unconventional resources coursework and lectures. Heretofore, a comprehensive unconventional resources text such as this has been unavailable."
—Dr. Raymond Johnson, Jr., Senior Lecturer, University of Queensland, and Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Adelaide, Australia