1st Edition

Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources Exploitation and Development

Edited By Usman Ahmed, D. Nathan Meehan Copyright 2016
    894 Pages 752 Color Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    As the shale revolution continues in North America, unconventional resource markets are emerging on every continent. In the next eight to ten years, more than 100,000 wells and one- to two-million hydraulic fracturing stages could be executed, resulting in close to one trillion dollars in industry spending. This growth has prompted professionals experienced in conventional oil and gas exploitation and development to acquire practical knowledge of the unconventional realm.

    Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources: Exploitation and Development provides a comprehensive understanding of the latest advances in the exploitation and development of unconventional resources. With an emphasis on shale, this book:

    • Addresses all aspects of the exploitation and development process, from data mining and accounting to drilling, completion, stimulation, production, and environmental issues
    • Offers in-depth coverage of sub-surface measurements (geological, geophysical, petrophysical, geochemical, and geomechanical) and their interpretation
    • Discusses the use of microseismic, fiber optic, and tracer reservoir monitoring technologies and JewelSuite™ reservoir modeling software
    • Presents the viewpoints of internationally respected experts and researchers from leading exploration and production (E&P) companies and academic institutions
    • Explores future trends in reservoir technologies for unconventional resources development

    Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources: Exploitation and Development aids geologists, geophysicists, petrophysicists, geomechanic specialists, and drilling, completion, stimulation, production, and reservoir engineers in the environmentally safe exploitation and development of unconventional resources like shale.

    Foreword; Steve Holditch
    The Shale Revolution
    Industry Image

    Introduction; Usman Ahmed and I. Yucel Akkutlu
    Setting the Stage
    Mission and Scope
    Defining Unconventional Resources
    Chapter Summary
    The Way Forward

    Characteristics of Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources; Usman Ahmed and D. Nathan Meehan
    Introduction to Unconventional Resources
    Workflow to Address Unconventional Resource Development
    The Unconventional Resource Triangle
    Characteristics of Shale Oil and Gas
    Specific Considerations for Tight Oil and Gas
    Specific Considerations for Coalbed Methane

    The Unconventional Basins and Plays—North America, the Rest of the World, and Emerging Basins; Robert Kennedy, Lucy Xin Luo, and Vello Kuuskra
    US Shale Gas, Oil Plays, and Basins
    Canada Shale Oil and Shale Gas Basins
    Major Shale Oil and Shale Gas Basins in Rest of the World

    Unconventional Resources Workflow—Exploitation and Development; William Knecht and Shanna Sambol-Koseoglu
    Workflows in Unconventional Resource Development
    Challenges and Background
    The Common Solution
    The Ideal Solution
    Identify and Evaluate Resource Potential
    Build and Modify Reservoir Models
    Refine Resource Evaluation and Generate a Field Development Plan
    Determine the Optimal Horizontal Well Placement
    Achieve Drilling Precision and Efficiency
    Characterize the Lateral for Fracture Stage Placement
    Determine the Optimal Horizontal Hydraulic Fracture Stage Placement
    Design a Fracture Program and Treatment
    Microseismic Fracture Monitoring Services
    Optimize Production Flow
    Refracture to Improve Ultimate Recovery
    Holistic Approach to Water Management

    Seismic Reservoir Characterization Applications for Unconventional Resources; Rob Mayer, Gabino Castillo, Kevin Chesser, Guy Oliver, Chi Vinh Ly, Simon Voisey, Norbert Van de Coevering, and Antoine Bouziat
    Overview of Surface Seismic Utilization in Unconventional Plays
    Seismic Survey Design and Acquisition Considerations
    Seismic Processing
    Seismic Attribute Interpretation
    Validation Techniques
    Case Study
    Case Study

    Pilot Projects in Unconventional Resources Development; Michael A. Addis, Hans-Christian Freitag, and Alfredo Mendez
    Pilot Projects
    Pilot Project Design and Review to Capture Improvements
    Concluding Remarks and Future Trends

    Formation Evaluation and Reservoir Characterization of Source Rock Reservoirs; Matt W. Bratovich and Frank Walles
    Overview of Formation Evaluation Objectives for Reservoir Characterization of Source Rock Reservoirs
    Technologies Utilized for Formation Evaluation and Reservoir Characterization of Source Rock Reservoirs
    Organic Carbon Quantification
    Lithology and Mineralogy Determination
    Porosity Determination
    Permeability Determination
    Fluid Saturation Determination
    Geological and Geomechanical Characterization
    Utilization of Formation Evaluation Results to Optimize Lateral Well Placement and Lateral Characterization for Stimulation Program Design

    Role of Geomechanical Engineering in Unconventional Resources Developments; Michael A. Addis, Sanjeev Bordoloi, Javier A. Franquet, Patrick J. Hooyman, Robert S. Hurt, Julie E. Kowan, Abbas Khaksar, Neal B. Nagel, and See H. Ong
    Rock Characterization
    In-Situ Stress and Pore Pressure Characterization
    Wellbore Stability
    Geomechanical Engineering Considerations in Shale Stimulation
    Geomechanics Considerations in CBM Developments
    Conclusion and Future Trends

    Laboratory Tests and Considerations to Complement the Overall Reservoir Understanding; Brian J. Davis, Russell Maharidge, and Joel Walls
    Reservoir Samples for Lab Analysis
    Unconventional Rock Types
    Core Preservation
    Laboratory Analyses
    Digital Rocks Methods for Mudstones: An Example from the Wolfcamp Formation
    Final Words

    Reservoir Engineering Aspects of Unconventional Oil and Gas; D. Nathan Meehan and Usman Ahmed
    The Conventional Approach
    The Unconventional Dilemma
    Well Variability Issues
    Impact of Fracture Characteristics
    Drainage Volume
    Other Reservoir Issues

    The Art of Data Mining and Its Impact on Unconventional Reservoir Development; Randy F. LaFollette, Lucy Xin Luo, and Ming Zhong
    The Importance of Data Mining in Unconventional Reservoirs
    Evolution of Data Mining
    Data Availability
    Data Quality Control
    Analysis Methods
    Case Studies
    Concluding Remarks

    Unconventional Reserves and Resources Accounting and Booking; Rawdon Seager
    What Do We Mean by Reserves Booking?
    Definitions for Reserves and Resources
    What Do We Mean by Unconventional Resources?
    Approach to Assessing Reserves and Resources in Unconventional Reservoirs
    Closing Remarks

    Production Evaluation and Forecasting; George Vassilellis, Craig Cipolla, James C. Erdle, and Usman Ahmed
    Production Forecasting
    Conventional Techniques for Characterizing Fracture Geometry
    Numerical Reservoir Modeling
    Stimulated Reservoir Volume, Microseismic Data, and Production Evaluation and Forecasting
    Completion Optimization and RTA in Unconventional Reservoirs
    Production Forecast Approximation
    Numerical Models

    Drilling Systems for Unconventionals; Rajdeep Gupta, Deepak K. Khatri, Ashish K. Goel, and Gregory L. Devenish
    The Early Days
    Drilling Unconventional Wells
    Drilling Systems
    The Changing Needs of Unconventional Drilling
    Concluding Remarks

    Multistage Completion Systems for Unconventionals; William (Aaron) Burton
    Basics of Unconventional Wellbore Completions
    Plug-and-Perforate Completion Systems
    Ball-Activated Completion Systems
    Coiled Tubing Activated Completion Systems
    Benefits and Considerations of Each Completion System
    Operational Comparison of Each Completion System
    Services Correlation
    Concluding Remarks

    Stimulation of Unconventional Reservoirs; Tony Martin, Sergey Kotov, Scott G. Nelson, and David Cramer
    Authors’ Note
    Introduction to Unconventional Fracturing
    Fracturing Fluids and Proppants
    Fracture Design Considerations
    Geomechanics and Fracture Modeling
    Perforation Strategy
    Calibration and Diagnostic Tests
    Unconventional Fracturing Operations

    Flow Assurance; Stephen Szymczak
    Inorganic Scale
    Bacteria and Bacterially Related Corrosion
    Program Design and Operations
    Summary and Conclusion

    Artificial Lift Technologies; Alex Vilcinskas
    Unconventional Oil Plays and General Issues
    Summary of Application Issues
    Well Depth
    Production Decline (Depletion)
    Oil Producing Unconventional Plays in the US: Electric Submersible
    Gas Handling Theory

    Monitoring Technologies—Microseismic, Fiber Optic, and Tracers; Pierre-François Roux, Edmund Leung, Cooper C. Gill, and Usman Ahmed
    Introduction to Monitoring Technologies
    Background: About Microseismic
    Fiber Optic Monitoring
    Permanent Downhole Inflow Tracer Monitoring Technology

    Rejuvenating Unconventional Resources; Robert Kennedy, Iman Oraki Kohshour, and Usman Ahmed
    The Potential Refracturing Market for North American and United States Shale Wells
    Initial Fracturing Wellbore Completion Types
    Reasons to Refracture
    Why Initial Fracture Treatments Are Either Unsuccessful or Fail Over Time
    Why Refracturing Is Successful
    Refracturing Procedures
    Refracturing Candidate Selection
    The Economics of Refracturing
    Refracture Case Histories
    Recommendations for Refracturing
    Concluding Remarks about Refractures
    ESOR−Enhanced Shale Oil Recovery
    Case Study
    EOR Concluding Remarks

    Environmental Issues in Unconventional Oil and Gas Resource Development; D. Nathan Meehan
    Social License to Operate
    Environmental Issues in Unconventional Activities
    Outlook on Federal and State Developments

    Case Studies, Accessing JewelSuite™ Software and Data; Marie P. Meyet, Iman Oraki Kohshour, Sachin Ghorpade, Seun Oyinloye, Randall Cade, and Usman Ahmed
    Software Access
    Eagle Ford

    New Considerations and Future Trends in Reservoir Technologies for Unconventional Resources Development; I. Yucel Akkutlu
    Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Maturation, Fracture Initiation, and Propagation
    Stress-Sensitive Microfractured Shale Matrix Permeability
    Resource Shales as Naturally Occurring Nanoporous Materials
    From Reservoir Uncertainties to Reservoir Anomalies
    Permeability of Organic-Rich Nanoporous Shale with Microfractures
    Improved Oil Recovery

    Epilogue; Usman Ahmed, D. Nathan Meehan, and I. Yucel Akkutlu
    Nature of Matrix-Fracture Duality
    From Reservoir Uncertainties to Reservoir Anomalies
    Reservoir Engineering Discipline in Crisis
    A Shift in Paradigms on Its Way
    Terms and Definitions


    Usman Ahmed is CTO of unconventional oil and gas resources technology and executive technical advisor to WellDog, and more recently, vice president and chief reservoir engineer at Baker Hughes. He previously worked for Schlumberger, TerraTek, and his own reservoir and production engineering consulting firm, Energy Resources International. He has two patents and more than three decades of petroleum engineering experience. He is a Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) distinguished member, a recognized technical and professional industry leader, and the author and coauthor of more than 100 industry papers and textbooks. He was an SPE distinguished speaker in 2004-2005 and 2013-2014, and has been invited to numerous events as a keynote speaker and panelist. He holds a B.Sc. and M.Sc. in petroleum engineering from Texas A&M University.

    D. Nathan Meehan serves as senior executive advisor to Baker Hughes. He was previously president of CMG Petroleum Consulting, vice president of engineering for Occidental Oil and Gas, and general manager of exploration and production services for Union Pacific Resources. He was recently elected the 2016 president of the Society of Petroleum (SPE) Engineers. He is an SPE distinguished member with more than 38 years of experience in reservoir engineering, reserve estimation, hydraulic fracturing, and horizontal wells. He holds a B.Sc. in physics from the Georgia Institute of Technology, M.Sc. in petroleum engineering from the University of Oklahoma, and Ph.D. in petroleum engineering from Stanford University. Widely published and highly decorated, Dr. Meehan is a licensed professional engineer in four states.

    "This cornerstone-edited volume sets a benchmark for understanding the complexity of unconventional oil and gas resources. The breath of the topics covered and level within each topic have set a high bar for any future book in this space. If you are in this business, you need to have this book. If you are considering this business, you could stumble without this book. It should be required reading at any university with programs in petroleum science. For those that don’t know the two editors, Usman Ahmed and Dr. Nathan Meehan, we are getting a volume that is scrutinized by two top-class industry scientists with vast technology insight who know the topics covered. In my judgment, if you could only have one book on this topic, this is it."
    —Dr. Raymond Levey, Director, Energy and Geoscience Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA

    "The authors should be commended for carefully and painstakingly assembling this comprehensive collection of background data, methods, and workflows current to the industry with insight into potential areas of ongoing research and investigations (e.g., emerging resource areas, formation evaluation, data analytics, etc.). For the practitioner, this text serves as a valuable reference tool and guide. For the researcher, this text provides insight into current methods and workflows, and aids further investigations into emerging areas of unconventional resources. Finally, this text is an invaluable resource to accompany advanced undergraduate and postgraduate unconventional resources coursework and lectures. Heretofore, a comprehensive unconventional resources text such as this has been unavailable."
    —Dr. Raymond Johnson, Jr., Senior Lecturer, University of Queensland, and Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Adelaide, Australia