Posted on: January 26, 2021
Written by Charles M. Reigeluth and Yunjo An, authors of Merging the Instructional Design Process with Learner-Centered Theory: The Holistic 4D Model.
This is the third of our blogs on ways that ID process models should be updated based on developments in our field. These next two suggestions (#6 and #7) are related to the nature of the ID process.
6. A Holistic ID Process
To address the problem of fragmented and “cookie cutter” instruction, the ID process should begin with creating a holistic fuzzy vision of what the instruction should be like (content and methods), rather than beginning by analyzing the content into small pieces and designing instruction for each of those pieces. The holistic vision includes a fuzzy idea of the scope of the content and the nature of the instructional methods. That top-level design should be followed by a mid-level design that works out more details on the fuzzy vision, and finally a lower-level design that fills in all the details for both content and methods. This allows for more creativity in the design process, more coherence in the resulting instruction, and greater efficiency of the ID process.
7. ADE Cycles and Design Documents
When an ID project tries to complete all the analysis before doing any design, some things get analyzed that are not needed, and some things that are needed are not analyzed. Also, memories fade when a lot of time passes between the analysis and the use of its results in design. Therefore, the ID process should offer guidance for just-in-time analysis throughout the entire design process. Similarly, it helps to do some formative evaluation of each design decision as soon as possible, so any improvements can be incorporated into future design decisions, thereby saving time and effort. Thus, the ID process should offer guidance for cycles of ADE (analysis-design-evaluation) that use JIT analysis and immediate evaluation of your design decisions. It should also offer templates to facilitate documenting the results of the design process, including important analysis and formative evaluation results.
We will describe our final three updates shortly.