Designing Food Safety and Equipment Reliability Through Maintenance Engineering: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Designing Food Safety and Equipment Reliability Through Maintenance Engineering

1st Edition

By Sauro Riccetti

Productivity Press

413 pages | 175 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2013-09-25
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Existing maintenance engineering techniques pursue equipment reliability with a focus on minimal costs, but in the food industry, food safety is the most critical issue. This book identifies how to ensure food product safety through maintenance engineering in a way that produces added value and generates real profits for your organization.

Integrating food safety techniques with reliability and maintenance engineering techniques,Designing Food Safety and Equipment Reliability Through Maintenance Engineering details a maintenance design process that captures all conceivable critical factors in food manufacturing lines. While maintenance engineering normally starts with equipment reliability, this book starts with product safety to identify equipment criticalities and maintenance solutions.

The text examines the problems currently facing the food industry and introduces powerful solutions to help food producers and consultants manage both food safety and manufacturing effectiveness. It presents an innovative tool for weighing food, human, and equipment criticalities and also describes how to maximize maintenance design outcome through the empowerment of equipment operators and their close cooperation with maintenance and quality specialists.

Detailing how to design reliable task lists, the book includes case studies that illustrate the problems that low equipment reliability can create for your customers and your company’s image. It outlines key performance indicators that can help producers and suppliers easily identify quality, availability, and productivity gaps. It also highlights critical factors that can help you avoid process bottlenecks.

Table of Contents


The Food Industry Threat and Challenge: Increasing Regulation on Product Safety

Food Safety Problems Produced by Low Equipment Reliability

ALF Process and Criticalities

Food Product Processing (UHT Sterilization)

Aseptic Packaging (Aseptic Filling)

Container Distribution and Storage

Main Problem to Be Addressed

Effects of Equipment Stop in the Food Industry

Development of a Process to Design and Implement Maintenance Task Lists

Condition Monitoring to Reduce Human Errors and Their Impact on Product Safety

Scope of This Book


Link between Food Safety and Equipment Criticalities to Address Maintenance Needs


Problems, Threats, and Opportunities in the Food Industry

Increasing Competition

Cost Reduction

Downsizing and Outsourcing

New Approaches to Maintenance

Equipment Criticalities in Food Industry

Heat Treatment of Milk


LTLT Pasteurization

HTST Pasteurization


UHT Treatment

Sterilization in Container

Pasteurization of Milk Products

Sterilization of Milk Products

In-Container Sterilization

UHT Treatment

Aseptic Filling Equipment

Packaging Material (PM) Sterilization

Package Filling, Forming, and Sealing

Analysis of Case Studies to Address the Need of a Maintenance Process for Food Industry Packaging Lines

First Case Study: Product Contamination due to Scratch in the Packages

Second Case Study: Product Contamination due to Package Integrity Problems

Third Case Study: Product Contamination due to Mineral Oil Leakage

Fourth Case Study: Unsterile Packages Randomly Distributed Over Different Production Runs

Peanut Case Shows Holes in Product Safety Net

Analysis of Case Studies and Lessons Learned


Potential Contribution Given by Food Safety Certifications and GMPs

Food Safety System Certification (FSSC) 22000

Global View of the Whole Food Chain Criticalities

Primary and Secondary Sources of Contaminations

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs)

Buildings/Facilities and Equipment



Personnel and Quality Assurance




Critical Study of Quality and Maintenance Engineering Techniques


Equipment Availability through Reliability, Maintainability, and Supportability (ARMS)



Reliability Maintenance Techniques and Failure Curves

Product Law of Reliability

Failure Rate, MTTF, and MTBF

The Exponential Law of Reliability

Factors That Affect Reliability


Factors That Affect Maintainability


Food Product Safety Techniques

Product Safety through the Application of HACCP Methodology

Application of Hazard Operability (HAZOP)


The HAZOP General Overview

The HAZOP Process

Guidewords, Selection of Parameters, and Deviations

The Concept of Point of Reference (POR)

Screening for Causes of Deviations

Consequences and Safeguards

Deriving Recommendations (Closure)


Maintenance Engineering Techniques

Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Technique

RCM Logic Tree

Determining the Task Interval

Failure Reporting, Analysis, and Corrective Action System (FRACAS)

Quantitative Failure Measures through Statistical Analysis

Application of SPC to Potential and Functional Failures

Failure Distribution

Distribution of Variations

Qualitative Analysis through Ishikawa, Cause Mapping, and Root Cause Analysis

Other Qualitative Failure Analysis Tools

Critical Investigation of Maintenance Engineering Techniques to Define an Implementation Process for the Food Industry

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Technique

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Implementation Principles

Operator Empowerment through Cooperation with Maintenance Specialists

TPM Organization

World-Class Manufacturing (WCM)

Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain) Technique

Terotechnology Principles


Critical Review of Condition Monitoring (CM) Techniques


Online Monitoring Systems

Continuous Condition Monitoring and Remote Diagnosis

Analysis of Condition Monitoring Systems to Increase Maintenance Effectiveness

Infrared (IR) Thermography

Problems and Limitations of Infrared Thermography

Vibration Analysis

Types of Defects Detected by Vibration Analysis

Techniques Used to Measure Vibration

Oil Analysis (Tribology)

Application of Dempster–Shafer (D-S) Theory to Oil Monitoring

Tribological Failure Types and Their Features

Sensors for Continuous Monitoring (CM) of Critical Parameters

Conductivity Sensor for Cleaning in Place (CIP) Applications

Continuous Monitoring of Liquids

Continuous Monitoring of Liquid Concentration

Water pH Control

Water Treatment and Bacteria Measurement

Continuous Monitoring of Air Quality through Electronic Nose


The Process to Design Maintenance Procedures for the Food Industry


Step 1: Application of HACCP Methodology

Activity 1: Listing All Hazards and Considerations of Any Control Measures to Eliminate or Minimize Hazards Depending on Equipment Functions and Operational Tasks

Activity 2: Establishment of Critical Control Points (CCPs)

Activity 3: Establishment of Critical Limits for Each CCP

Activity 4: Establishment of Monitoring System for Each CCP

Activity 5: Establishment of Corrective Actions

Activity 6: Establishment of Verification Procedures

Activity 7: Establishment of Record Keeping and Documentation

Step 2: Application of Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM)

System Selection

Boundary Definition and Operational Mode Summary

Failure Analysis

First: Fault Tree and What’s Different Analysis

Second: Root Cause Analysis and Cause Mapping

Third: Ishikawa with His Fishbone Diagram

Fourth: Five Why’s Technique

Functional and Potential Failure Determination

Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)

Review of Maintenance History

Determine Maintenance Approach for Each Failure Effect

RCM Logic Tree for Task Selection

Determining the Task Interval

Step 3: Safety and Reliability Analysis through HACCP and RCM

Step 4: List of Priorities (Safety and Reliability Analysis)

Step 5: Design of Maintenance Tasks


Step 1: Application of HACCP Methodology to Manage Product Safety Criticalities

Step 2: Application of Maintenance Engineering Techniques to Manage Equipment Reliability Criticalities

Step 3: Safety and Reliability Analysis to Manage Product Safety and Equipment Reliability Criticalities

Step 4: List of Priorities (Safety and Reliability Analysis)

Step 5: Design of Maintenance Tasks

Proposals for a Maintenance Implementation Model for the Food Industry


Analysis of Implementation Principles Considered

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

World-Class Manufacturing

First Step: Assess Current Situation

Second Step: Restore Basic Conditions/Deploy Quality Losses

Third Step: Eradicate Sporadic Losses

Fourth Step: Eradicate Chronic Losses

Fifth Step: Build the Zero Defect System

Sixth Step: Improve the Zero Defect System

Seventh Step: Maintain the Zero Defect System

Total Quality Maintenance

Terotechnology Principles

Proposal of a Maintenance Implementation Model for the Food Industry

First Step: Situation Analysis

Second Step: Define the Food Packaging Line Mandatory Requirements

Third Step: Top Management Involvement and Commitment

Fourth Step: Training and Education Campaign for Implementation of New Maintenance Procedures

Fifth Step: Design the Organization to Implement New Maintenance Procedures

Sixth Step: Restore Basic or Standard Conditions

Seventh Step: Develop a Scheduled Maintenance Checklist

Eighth Step: Develop Autonomous and Specialist Maintenance Integration

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to Monitor Production and Maintenance Effectiveness


Stop Reasons

Performance Based on Producer View

Total Equipment Utilization (TEU)

Total Time Utilization (TTU)

Gross Production Time (GPT)

Production Gross Time Utilization (PGTU)

Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)

Total Equipment Productivity (TEP)

Performance Based on Specific Equipment Focus

Simple Equipment Efficiency (SEE)

Mean Time between Failures (MTBF)

Mean Time to Restore (MTTR)

Performance Based on Containers Used

Containers’ Utilization (CU)

Containers’ Efficiency (CE)

Examples of Calculation

Examples of Data Collected to Calculate the Equipment Performance

Calculations Based on Data Collected

Overall Equipment Effectiveness

How to Measure Maintenance Effectiveness

How to Measure Maintenance Cost

Analysis of KPIs and Task List Improvement


End Product Quality Control

Quality Control Carried Out by the Equipment Operator

Pre- and Postproduction Cleaning and Maintenance Activities on Packaging Machines

Production Quality Control Procedures

End Product Criticalities

Statistical Sampling

Sampling Plan

How and When to Sample Containers

Distribution of Defective Units

Why Process Quality Is So Important

Quality Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

Critical Factors to Manage in the Design and Implementation Process


Technical Drawbacks

Equipment Reliability and Technological Problems

Lack of Technical Documentation, Training, and Service Support

Organizational Drawbacks

Lack of Autonomous Maintenance Carried Out by the Equipment Operator

Lack of Management Commitment and Involvement

Lack of a Planning and Measuring System

Cultural Drawbacks

Old Management Culture

Workforce Culture

Training for Equipment Operators and Maintenance Specialists




Conclusions on Food Packaging Line Problems

Solutions to Manage the Effects Produced by Equipment Downtime and Failures

Solutions to Establish Compliance with Product Safety Directives and Standards

Solutions to Risks Depending on the Human Factor

Conclusions about the Critical Factors to Manage during the Design and Implementation Process

Solution to Technical Drawbacks

Solution to Organizational Drawbacks

Solution to Cultural Drawbacks

Solution to Old Management Culture

Solution to Lack of Workforce Commitment

Solution to Establish a Close Cooperation between Equipment Operators and Maintenance Specialists

Conclusions about Food Safety and the Equipment Reliability Problem

Possible Solutions

Software Program

Production Line Monitoring

Working Team

Contribution of This Book to the Achievement of Higher Product Safety and Equipment Reliability

Future Work on This Subject




About the Author

Dr. Sauro Riccetti obtained a graduate diploma in electrical and electronic engineering and membership to the Society of Engineers (London), then a postgraduate diploma and a master of science (MSc) degree in manufacturing engineering at the Open University (UK). He continued his research studies on maintenance and process engineering applied to the food industry, receiving his doctor of philosophy (PhD) degree in manufacturing engineering from the School of Engineering and Design at Brunel University (London). He is a member of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (UK) and a chartered engineer of the Engineering Council (UK).

Dr. Riccetti has worked in the food industry for more than 30 years. He carried out his research activities on maintenance and process engineering applied to the food industry and is actively involved in developing new products and services to improve food safety and equipment reliability in the food industry’s packaging lines.

His experience at Tetra Pak Italy and in holding several different positions including training manager, customer service director, and business development director, in addition to his involvement in improvement projects for the food industry, have enabled him to gain wide experience on maintenance and process engineering applied to the food industry.

Dr. Riccetti lives in Modena, Italy, and can be contacted at

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Quality Control
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Purchasing & Buying