Designing Food Safety and Equipment Reliability Through Maintenance Engineering  book cover
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Designing Food Safety and Equipment Reliability Through Maintenance Engineering




ISBN 9781466589872
Published September 25, 2013 by Productivity Press
413 Pages 175 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Existing maintenance engineering techniques pursue equipment reliability with a focus on minimal costs, but in the food industry, food safety is the most critical issue. This book identifies how to ensure food product safety through maintenance engineering in a way that produces added value and generates real profits for your organization.

Integrating food safety techniques with reliability and maintenance engineering techniques, Designing Food Safety and Equipment Reliability Through Maintenance Engineering details a maintenance design process that captures all conceivable critical factors in food manufacturing lines. While maintenance engineering normally starts with equipment reliability, this book starts with product safety to identify equipment criticalities and maintenance solutions.

The text examines the problems currently facing the food industry and introduces powerful solutions to help food producers and consultants manage both food safety and manufacturing effectiveness. It presents an innovative tool for weighing food, human, and equipment criticalities and also describes how to maximize maintenance design outcome through the empowerment of equipment operators and their close cooperation with maintenance and quality specialists.

Detailing how to design reliable task lists, the book includes case studies that illustrate the problems that low equipment reliability can create for your customers and your company’s image. It outlines key performance indicators that can help producers and suppliers easily identify quality, availability, and productivity gaps. It also highlights critical factors that can help you avoid process bottlenecks.

Table of Contents

Introduction
The Food Industry Threat and Challenge: Increasing Regulation on Product Safety
Food Safety Problems Produced by Low Equipment Reliability
     ALF Process and Criticalities
          Food Product Processing (UHT Sterilization)
          Aseptic Packaging (Aseptic Filling)
          Container Distribution and Storage
     Main Problem to Be Addressed
     Effects of Equipment Stop in the Food Industry
Development of a Process to Design and Implement Maintenance Task Lists
Condition Monitoring to Reduce Human Errors and Their Impact on Product Safety
Scope of This Book
Conclusion

Link between Food Safety and Equipment Criticalities to Address Maintenance Needs
Introduction
Problems, Threats, and Opportunities in the Food Industry
     Increasing Competition
     Cost Reduction
     Downsizing and Outsourcing
     New Approaches to Maintenance
Equipment Criticalities in Food Industry
     Heat Treatment of Milk
          Thermization
          LTLT Pasteurization
          HTST Pasteurization
          Ultra-Pasteurization
          UHT Treatment
          Sterilization in Container
     Pasteurization of Milk Products
     Sterilization of Milk Products
          In-Container Sterilization
          UHT Treatment
     Aseptic Filling Equipment
          Packaging Material (PM) Sterilization
          Package Filling, Forming, and Sealing
Analysis of Case Studies to Address the Need of a Maintenance Process for Food Industry Packaging Lines
     First Case Study: Product Contamination due to Scratch in the Packages
     Second Case Study: Product Contamination due to Package Integrity Problems
     Third Case Study: Product Contamination due to Mineral Oil Leakage
     Fourth Case Study: Unsterile Packages Randomly Distributed Over Different Production Runs
     Peanut Case Shows Holes in Product Safety Net
     Analysis of Case Studies and Lessons Learned
Conclusion

Potential Contribution Given by Food Safety Certifications and GMPs
Food Safety System Certification (FSSC) 22000
     Global View of the Whole Food Chain Criticalities
     Primary and Secondary Sources of Contaminations
Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs)
     Buildings/Facilities and Equipment
          Buildings/Facilities
          Equipment
     Personnel and Quality Assurance
     Processes
     Products
Conclusion

Critical Study of Quality and Maintenance Engineering Techniques
Introduction
Equipment Availability through Reliability, Maintainability, and Supportability (ARMS)
     Availability
     Reliability     
          Reliability Maintenance Techniques and Failure Curves
          Product Law of Reliability
          Failure Rate, MTTF, and MTBF
          The Exponential Law of Reliability
          Factors That Affect Reliability
     Maintainability
          Factors That Affect Maintainability
     Supportability
Food Product Safety Techniques
     Product Safety through the Application of HACCP Methodology
     Application of Hazard Operability (HAZOP)
          Definitions
          The HAZOP General Overview
          The HAZOP Process
          Guidewords, Selection of Parameters, and Deviations
          The Concept of Point of Reference (POR)
          Screening for Causes of Deviations
          Consequences and Safeguards
          Deriving Recommendations (Closure)
          Conclusions
Maintenance Engineering Techniques
     Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Technique
          RCM Logic Tree
          Determining the Task Interval
     Failure Reporting, Analysis, and Corrective Action System (FRACAS)
     Quantitative Failure Measures through Statistical Analysis
          Application of SPC to Potential and Functional Failures
          Failure Distribution
          Distribution of Variations
     Qualitative Analysis through Ishikawa, Cause Mapping, and Root Cause Analysis
     Other Qualitative Failure Analysis Tools
Critical Investigation of Maintenance Engineering Techniques to Define an Implementation Process for the Food Industry
     Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Technique
          Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Implementation Principles
          Operator Empowerment through Cooperation with Maintenance Specialists
          TPM Organization
     World-Class Manufacturing (WCM)
     Total Quality Maintenance (TQMain) Technique
     Terotechnology Principles
Conclusion

Critical Review of Condition Monitoring (CM) Techniques
Introduction
Online Monitoring Systems
     Continuous Condition Monitoring and Remote Diagnosis
Analysis of Condition Monitoring Systems to Increase Maintenance Effectiveness
     Infrared (IR) Thermography
          Problems and Limitations of Infrared Thermography
     Vibration Analysis
          Types of Defects Detected by Vibration Analysis
          Techniques Used to Measure Vibration
     Oil Analysis (Tribology)
          Application of Dempster–Shafer (D-S) Theory to Oil Monitoring
          Tribological Failure Types and Their Features
Sensors for Continuous Monitoring (CM) of Critical Parameters
     Conductivity Sensor for Cleaning in Place (CIP) Applications
     Continuous Monitoring of Liquids
          Continuous Monitoring of Liquid Concentration
          Water pH Control
          Water Treatment and Bacteria Measurement
     Continuous Monitoring of Air Quality through Electronic Nose
Conclusion

The Process to Design Maintenance Procedures for the Food Industry
Introduction
Step 1: Application of HACCP Methodology
     Activity 1: Listing All Hazards and Considerations of Any Control Measures to Eliminate or Minimize Hazards Depending on Equipment Functions and Operational Tasks
     Activity 2: Establishment of Critical Control Points (CCPs)
     Activity 3: Establishment of Critical Limits for Each CCP
     Activity 4: Establishment of Monitoring System for Each CCP
     Activity 5: Establishment of Corrective Actions
     Activity 6: Establishment of Verification Procedures
     Activity 7: Establishment of Record Keeping and Documentation
Step 2: Application of Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM)
     System Selection
     Boundary Definition and Operational Mode Summary
     Failure Analysis
          First: Fault Tree and What’s Different Analysis
          Second: Root Cause Analysis and Cause Mapping
          Third: Ishikawa with His Fishbone Diagram
          Fourth: Five Why’s Technique
     Functional and Potential Failure Determination
     Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
     Review of Maintenance History
     Determine Maintenance Approach for Each Failure Effect
          RCM Logic Tree for Task Selection
          Determining the Task Interval
Step 3: Safety and Reliability Analysis through HACCP and RCM
Step 4: List of Priorities (Safety and Reliability Analysis)
Step 5: Design of Maintenance Tasks
Conclusion
     Step 1: Application of HACCP Methodology to Manage Product Safety Criticalities
     Step 2: Application of Maintenance Engineering Techniques to Manage Equipment Reliability Criticalities
     Step 3: Safety and Reliability Analysis to Manage Product Safety and Equipment Reliability Criticalities
     Step 4: List of Priorities (Safety and Reliability Analysis)
     Step 5: Design of Maintenance Tasks

Proposals for a Maintenance Implementation Model for the Food Industry
     Introduction
     Analysis of Implementation Principles Considered
     Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) 
     World-Class Manufacturing
          First Step: Assess Current Situation
          Second Step: Restore Basic Conditions/Deploy Quality Losses
          Third Step: Eradicate Sporadic Losses
          Fourth Step: Eradicate Chronic Losses
          Fifth Step: Build the Zero Defect System
          Sixth Step: Improve the Zero Defect System
          Seventh Step: Maintain the Zero Defect System
     Total Quality Maintenance
     Terotechnology Principles
Proposal of a Maintenance Implementation Model for the Food Industry
     First Step: Situation Analysis
     Second Step: Define the Food Packaging Line Mandatory Requirements
     Third Step: Top Management Involvement and Commitment
     Fourth Step: Training and Education Campaign for Implementation of New Maintenance Procedures
     Fifth Step: Design the Organization to Implement New Maintenance Procedures
     Sixth Step: Restore Basic or Standard Conditions
     Seventh Step: Develop a Scheduled Maintenance Checklist
     Eighth Step: Develop Autonomous and Specialist Maintenance Integration
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to Monitor Production and Maintenance Effectiveness
     Definitions
          Stop Reasons
     Performance Based on Producer View
          Total Equipment Utilization (TEU)
          Total Time Utilization (TTU)
          Gross Production Time (GPT)
          Production Gross Time Utilization (PGTU)
          Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)
          Total Equipment Productivity (TEP)
     Performance Based on Specific Equipment Focus
          Simple Equipment Efficiency (SEE)
          Mean Time between Failures (MTBF)
          Mean Time to Restore (MTTR)
     Performance Based on Containers Used
          Containers’ Utilization (CU)
          Containers’ Efficiency (CE)
     Examples of Calculation
          Examples of Data Collected to Calculate the Equipment Performance
          Calculations Based on Data Collected
     Overall Equipment Effectiveness
     How to Measure Maintenance Effectiveness
How to Measure Maintenance Cost
Analysis of KPIs and Task List Improvement
Conclusion

End Product Quality Control
Quality Control Carried Out by the Equipment Operator
     Pre- and Postproduction Cleaning and Maintenance Activities on Packaging Machines
     Production Quality Control Procedures
End Product Criticalities
Statistical Sampling
     Sampling Plan
     How and When to Sample Containers
     Distribution of Defective Units
     Why Process Quality Is So Important
     Quality Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

Critical Factors to Manage in the Design and Implementation Process
Introduction
Technical Drawbacks
     Equipment Reliability and Technological Problems
     Lack of Technical Documentation, Training, and Service Support
Organizational Drawbacks
     Lack of Autonomous Maintenance Carried Out by the Equipment Operator
     Lack of Management Commitment and Involvement
     Lack of a Planning and Measuring System
Cultural Drawbacks
     Old Management Culture
     Workforce Culture
     Training for Equipment Operators and Maintenance Specialists
Conclusion

Conclusions
Introduction
Conclusions on Food Packaging Line Problems 
     Solutions to Manage the Effects Produced by Equipment Downtime and Failures
     Solutions to Establish Compliance with Product Safety Directives and Standards
     Solutions to Risks Depending on the Human Factor
Conclusions about the Critical Factors to Manage during the Design and Implementation Process
     Solution to Technical Drawbacks
     Solution to Organizational Drawbacks
     Solution to Cultural Drawbacks
          Solution to Old Management Culture
          Solution to Lack of Workforce Commitment
          Solution to Establish a Close Cooperation between Equipment Operators and Maintenance Specialists
Conclusions about Food Safety and the Equipment Reliability Problem
Possible Solutions
     Software Program
     Production Line Monitoring
     Working Team
Contribution of This Book to the Achievement of Higher Product Safety and Equipment Reliability
Future Work on This Subject
Limitations
Summary
References

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Author(s)

Biography

Dr. Sauro Riccetti obtained a graduate diploma in electrical and electronic engineering and membership to the Society of Engineers (London), then a postgraduate diploma and a master of science (MSc) degree in manufacturing engineering at the Open University (UK). He continued his research studies on maintenance and process engineering applied to the food industry, receiving his doctor of philosophy (PhD) degree in manufacturing engineering from the School of Engineering and Design at Brunel University (London). He is a member of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (UK) and a chartered engineer of the Engineering Council (UK).

Dr. Riccetti has worked in the food industry for more than 30 years. He carried out his research activities on maintenance and process engineering applied to the food industry and is actively involved in developing new products and services to improve food safety and equipment reliability in the food industry’s packaging lines.

His experience at Tetra Pak Italy and in holding several different positions including training manager, customer service director, and business development director, in addition to his involvement in improvement projects for the food industry, have enabled him to gain wide experience on maintenance and process engineering applied to the food industry.

Dr. Riccetti lives in Modena, Italy, and can be contacted at [email protected]