3rd Edition

Encyclopedia of Soil Science

By Rattan Lal Copyright 2016
    3068 Pages
    by CRC Press

    New and Improved Global Edition: Three-Volume Set

    A ready reference addressing a multitude of soil and soil management concerns, the highly anticipated and widely expanded third edition of Encyclopedia of Soil Science now spans three volumes and covers ground on a global scale. A definitive guide designed for both coursework and self-study, this latest version describes every branch of soil science and delves into trans-disciplinary issues that focus on inter-connectivity or the nexus approach.

    For Soil Scientists, Crop Scientists, Plant Scientists and More

    A host of contributors from around the world weigh in on underlying themes relevant to natural and agricultural ecosystems. Factoring in a rapidly changing climate and a vastly growing population, they sound off on topics that include soil degradation, climate change, soil carbon sequestration, food and nutritional security, hidden hunger, water quality, non-point source pollution, micronutrients, and elemental transformations.

    New in the Third Edition:

    • Contains over 600 entries
    • Offers global geographical and thematic coverage
    • Entries peer reviewed by subject experts
    • Addresses current issues of global significance

    Encyclopedia of Soil Science, Third Edition: Three Volume Set expertly explains the science of soil and describes the material in terms that are easily accessible to researchers, students, academicians, policy makers, and laymen alike.


    Also Available Online
    This Taylor & Francis encyclopedia is also available through online subscription, offering a variety of extra benefits for researchers, students, and librarians, including:

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    • Saved searches and marked lists
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    Accounting: Emergy Analysis / Jay F Martin and D.R. Tilley

    Acid Mine Drainage / Jerry M Bigham and Charles A Cravotta III

    Acid Rain: Nitrogen Deposition / George F Vance

    Acid Sulfate Soils / Delvin S Fanning

    Acid Sulfate Soils: Distribution and Extent / Wim Andriesse and M.E.F van Mensvoort

    Acid Sulfate Soils: Formation / Martin C Rabenhorst, Delvin S Fanning, and Steven N Burch

    Acid Sulfate Soils: Management / Michael D Melville, Ian White, and Robert Quirk

    Acid Sulfate Soils: Problems / Martin C Rabenhorst and Delvin S Fanning

    Actinobacteria / Marketa Ságová-Marecková and Jan Kopecký

    Aeration: Measurement / Robert E Sojka and H.D Scott

    Aeration: Tillage Effects / Dave J Horne and Robert E Sojka

    Aggregates: Tensile Strength / Humberto Blanco-Canqui and Rattan Lal

    Aggregation / Sjoerd W Duiker

    Aggregation: Soil Organic Matter (SOM) and / Cynthia A Cambardella

    Aggregation: Structural Stability Measurement / Edmund Perfect, Martín Díaz-Zorita, and John Grove

    Agricultural Lands: Flooding and Levee Breaches / Kenneth R Olson and Lois Wright Morton

    Agricultural Management: Root Growth / Susanne Schroetter, Jutta Rogasik, and Ewald Schnug

    Agricultural Soil Carbon: Trading / Bruce A McCarl, Sung Ju Cho, Jinxiu Ding, Pei Huang, Layla Shiva, and Chin-Hsien Yu

    Air Permeability / Manoj K Shukla and Rattan Lal

    Albedo / Endre Dobos

    Alfisols / Rienk Miedema

    Allophanes / Leslie Louise Baker and Jodi Johnson-Maynard

    Alpine Soils / Jérôme Poulenard and Pascal Podwojewski

    Aluminum / Johannes Bernhard Wehr, Frederick Paxton Cardell Blamey, and Neal William Menzies

    Amazon Basin Soils / Stanley W Buol

    Amendments and Ameliorants / David C McKenzie

    Ammonia: Volatilization from Agricultural Soils / Paul G Saffigna and John R Freney

    Amoozemeter / Aziz Amoozegar

    Anaerobic Processes / Paul A McDaniel and Daniel G Strawn

    Andisols / Jon Chorover

    Andisols: Iceland / Olafur Arnalds

    Animals: Ecosystem Functioning / Alan J Franzluebbers

    Animals: Microbial Interactions and Nutrient Cycling / Lisa Cole and Richard D Bardgett

    Antimony / Gudny Okkenhaug and Jan Mulder

    Ants / Walter G Whitford

    Archaeology / John E Foss

    Arid Soils / H Curtis Monger

    Arsenic: Southeast Asia / Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman and Ravi Naidu

    Art and Soil / Christian Feller

    Atterberg Limits / Thomas Baumgartl

    Bacteria / Mary Ann Bruns

    Biochar and Soil Characteristics / Atanu Mukherjee and Rattan Lal

    Biochar and Soil Quality / David A Laird and Jeffrey M Novak

    Biochar: Soil Carbon and Fertility / Adam O’Toole and Daniel Rasse

    Biodegradation and Bioremediation / Owen P Ward and Ajay Singh

    Biodiversity and Sustainability / Odo Primavesi

    Bioenergy Crops: Carbon Balance Assessment / Rocky Lemus and Rattan Lal

    Biofuels versus Agricultural Soils / David Pimentel

    Biological Crusts / Jayne Belnap

    Biological Nitrogen Fixation / Robert H Burris

    Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Contributions to Agriculture / Mark B Peoples

    Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Enhancement Techniques / David Francis Herridge

    Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Forms and Regulating Factors / Ken E Giller and Paul Mapfumo

    Biota / Lev O Karpachevsky and Mikhail Karpachevsky

    Biota and Disease-Suppressive Soils / Nicola Lorenz

    Biotechnology / Manas R Banerjee and Laila Yesmin

    Boreal Forest / Galina Mazhitova

    Boron and Molybdenum / Umesh C Gupta and J.A MacLeod

    Brick Making: Soil Degradation / G.S Dheri, Babu S Brar, and Debankur Sanyal

    Bulk Density / Kwong Yin Chan

    Bunch Planting: Water Conservation / B.A Stewart

    Calcification / Janis L Boettinger

    Calcium / Zdenko Rengel

    Carbon Assessment: Spectroscopic Methods / James B Reeves III and Gregory W McCarty

    Carbon Sequestration: Fish Ponds / Subhendu Adhikari and Rattan Lal

    Carbon Sequestration: Geologic / Eswaran Padmanabhan

    Carbon Sequestration: Iceland / Anna María Ágústsdóttir

    Carbon Sequestration: Nutrient Management / M.C Manna, Muneshwar Singh, R.H Wanjari, Asit Mandal, and A.K Patra

    Carbon Sequestration: Sediments / Eswaran Padmanabhan

    Carbon Sequestration: Semiarid Regions of India / Cherukumalli Srinivasa Rao, Sumanta Kundu, and Srinivas K

    Carbon Sequestration: Urban Ecosystems / Adam Louis Selhorst

    Carbon Sink Capacity: Soil Profile Characteristics / Yuri Lopes Zinn

    Carbon: Inelastic Neutron Scattering / Lucian Wielopolski

    Carbon: Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy / Michael H Ebinger, Ronny D Harris, and Clifton W Meyer

    Carbon: Physical Protection / Jennifer A.J Dungait and David W Hopkins

    Carbonates / Douglas W Ming

    Carbonates: Secondary and Pedogenic / Ahmet R Mermut and A Landi

    Carbonates: Water and / Michael Duniway

    Care of Soil / Delia C Catacutan

    Cerrado / Igo F Lepsch

    Chemical Composition / Goro Uehara

    Chemisorption / N.J Barrow

    Chernozems / Boris Boincean and Rattan Lal

    Chlorine / Uzi Kafkafi and Guohua Xu

    Classification Systems / Stephen Nortcliff

    Classification Systems: Arab Traditional, Moroccan Case / Mohamed Sabir and Hassan Ben Jelloun

    Classification Systems: Australian and New Zealand / Terry A Isbell and A.E Hewitt

    Classification Systems: Brazilian / A.C.S da Costa and M.R Nanni

    Classification Systems: Canadian / Charles Tarnocai

    Classification Systems: Chinese / Zi-Tong Gong

    Classification Systems: French / Jean-Paul Legros

    Classification Systems: Historical Developments / Dan H Yaalon

    Classification Systems: Indian / Mariappan Velayutham, Tapas Bhattacharyya, and Dilip Kumar Pal

    Classification Systems: Indigenous / Erhan Akça and Selim Kapur

    Classification Systems: Major / Lars Krogh

    Classification Systems: Netherlands / Alfred E Hartemink and Henk de Bakker

    Classification Systems: Russian / Maria Gerasimova

    Classification Systems: South African / Jeffrey C Hughes

    Clay Minerals / C.D Barton and Anastasios D Karathanasis

    Clay Minerals: Charge Properties / Christopher John Matocha

    Clay Minerals: Weathering and Alteration of / Anastasios D Karathanasis

    Climate / Alexander N Gennadiyev and Serge S Chernyanskii

    Climate Change: Gas Fluxes / Pascal Boeckx and Oswald Van Cleemput

    Climate Change: Soil Carbon Sequestration / Sherwood E Idso and Keith E Idso

    Cobalt and Iodine / Ronald G McLaren

    Collembola / Steve P Hopkin

    Color / Robin N Thwaites

    Compaction / William E Wolfe

    Conditioning Index / Ted M Zobeck, M Lee Norfleet, and Douglas L Karlen

    Conservation Tillage / Jack Cline and Robert Hendershot

    Conserved Lands: Stewardship / Peter August, Janet Coit, and David Gregg

    Consistence / Ray McBride

    Consolidation / Tarunjit Singh Butalia

    Controlled Traffic / Randall C Reeder

    Copper / Judith F Pedler and David R Parker

    Cover Crops / Jorge A Delgado, D Wayne Reeves, and Ronald F Follett

    Crop Evapotranspiration: Measurement System / Huanjie Cai, Pute Wu, Zhijun Li, Xiaotao Hu, and Yufeng Zou

    Crop Management: Seasonally Frozen Soil / Brenton S Sharratt

    Crop Plants: Phosphorus Availability / Bettina Eichler-Löbermann and Ewald Schnug

    Crop Residue Management / David L Schertz and Dan Towery

    Crop Root Response to Temperature: Temperate Zone / Thomas C Kaspar

    Crop Rotation and Farming Systems: Temperate Zone / Martin R Carter

    Crop Rotation and Farming Systems: Tropical Smallholder Farm Systems /

    Stefan Hauser, Lindsey Norgrove, and Tarcisius Nyobe

    Crop Rotation and Farming Systems: Tropics and Subtropics and Swelling Soils / D.M Freebairn, G.D Smith, Robin D Connolly, and Jeff N Tullberg

    Crop Yield: Compaction / Muhammad Ishaq and Rattan Lal

    Croplands / B.A Stewart

    Crops: Flooding Tolerance / Tara T VanToai, Getachew Boru, and Jianhuan Zhang

    Cultivation: Raised-Bed / Kenneth D Sayre

    Culture: Soil-less / Nazim Gruda, Giorgio Prosdocimi Gianquinto, Yuksel Tuzel, and Dimitrios Savvas

    Cycling: Carbon and Nitrogen (C/N) / Sylvie M Brouder and Ronald F Turco

    Debris Flow / Jau-Yau Lu

    Degradation / Rosa M Poch Claret and José A Martínez-Casasnovas

    Degradation: Biological / Ibrahim Ortaş

    Degradation: Chemical / M Rifat Derici

    Degradation: Critical Limits and Irreversible Degradation / Anthony R Dexter and Michael A Zoebisch

    Degradation: Economic Incentives and Investments / Dennis Wichelns

    Degradation: Farm-Level Economic Implications / Dennis Wichelns and Ellen Burnes

    Degradation: Food Aid Needs in Low-Income Countries / Shahla Shapouri and Stacey Rosen

    Degradation: Food Security and Poverty / Pierre Crosson

    Degradation: Greenhouse Effect / Eddy De Pauw and Michael A Zoebisch

    Degradation: Mapping by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) / Zhanquo Bai and David Dent

    Degradation: Off-Farm Economic Implications / Dennis Wichelns and Ellen Burnes

    Degradation: Physical / Michael A Zoebisch and Anthony R Dexter

    Degradation: Quality and / Rattan Lal

    Desertification: Biological Productivity Decline / Uriel N Safriel

    Desertification: Extent / Victor R Squires

    Desertification: Greenhouse Effect / Craig Idso and Sherwood E Idso

    Desertification: Humid Environment in Iceland / Andres Arnalds

    Desertification: Impact / David A Mouat and Judith Lancaster

    Desertification: Mapping Constraints and Challenges / Pandi Zdruli, Michael Cherlet, and Claudio Zucca

    Desertification: Prevention and Restoration / Claudio Zucca, Susana Bautista, and

    Franco Previtali

    Desertification: Productivity / Kris M Havstad

    Desertification: Restoration / Alon Tal

    Desertification: Reversal / David Tongway and John Ludwig

    Desertization: Irreversible Extension of Desert Land / Henry Noel LeHouérou

    Developing Countries: Economics of Soil Management / Stefano Pagiola

    Diagnostic Horizons / E.M Bridges

    Diffusivity: Measurement / Toru Nakajima

    Digital Soil Mapping / Budiman Minasny, Alex B McBratney, and Florence Carré

    Drainage: Aeration and Trafficability / Norman R Fausey

    Drainage: Anaerobiosis / Robert O Evans

    Drainage: Water Quality / James L Baker

    Drought: Drought Resistance / Graeme C Wright and Nageswararao C Rachaputi

    Drought: Precipitation, Evapotranspiration, and Soil Moisture / Joshua B Fisher and Konstantinos M Andreadis

    Earthworms / Patrick J Bohlen

    Eco-Agriculture / Norman Uphoff and Janice E Thies

    Ecology: Cycling of Carbon and Nitrogen / Alan J Franzluebbers

    Economics of Soil Management: U.S / Jeffrey W Hopkins

    Ecosystems: Life Attributes and Environment / Dennis R Linden

    Enchytraeidae / María Jesús Iglesias Briones

    Entisols / Larry T West

    Environmentally Friendly Indigenous Technologies / Selim Kapur and Erhan Akça

    Enzymes / Veronica Acosta-Martinez and Susanne Klose

    Erosion / Dennis C Flanagan

    Erosion Management: Hill Soils / Narendra Kumar Lenka and B Krishna Rao

    Erosion Tolerance / David L Schertz and Mark A Nearing

    Erosion: Aggregate Breakdown Mechanisms / Yves Le Bissonnais

    Erosion: Agronomic Practices / Glenn A Weesies, David L Schertz, and William F Kuenstler

    Erosion: Assessment / John Boardman

    Erosion: Carbon Dioxide / Pierre A Jacinthe and Rattan Lal

    Erosion: Controlling Irrigation-Induced / Robert E Sojka and David L Bjorneberg

    Erosion: Crop Yield / Michael Stocking

    Erosion: Disturbed Lands / William J Elliot

    Erosion: Effects on Human Life / Neroli Pedro Cogo and Renato Levien

    Erosion: Fly-Ash Spheres as Time Marker / Kenneth R Olson and Alexander N Gennadiyev

    Erosion: Global Change / Xingxiang Wang, Taolin Zhang, Longxi Cao, and Yin Liang

    Erosion: On-Site and Off-Site Impacts / Jerry L Hatfield

    Erosion: Overland Research and Measurement Techniques / Chia Chun Joseph Wu

    Erosion: Perennial Crop Plantations / Alfred E Hartemink

    Erosion: Sedimentation Control Amendment Techniques / X.-C (John) Zhang

    Erosion: Sedimentation Control Vegetative Techniques / Samson D Angima

    Erosion: Snowmelt / Donald K McCool

    Erosion: Soil Conservation / Eric T Craswell

    Erosion: Water Quality / Andreas Klik

    Erosivity and Erodibility / Peter I.A Kinnell

    Ethics / John Ronald Engel

    Eutrophication / Thomas G Franti and Kyle D Hoagland

    Evaporation / William P Kustas

    Evolution: Soil Seed Bank / Paul B Cavers and David Susko

    Fauna / Mary C Savin

    Fauna and Microflora: Macrofauna / Judy Tisdall

    Fertility Decline: Definitions and Assessment / Alfred E Hartemink

    Fertility: Environmentally Compatible Management / Bal Ram Singh

    Fertility: Evaluation Systems / Ram C Dalal and A Subba Rao

    Fertility: Low Input and Traditional Maintenance Methods / Miguel Altieri

    Fertility: North China Plains / Xiangbin Kong and Rattan Lal

    Fertilizers: Application Methods / John Ryan

    Fertilizers: Leaching Losses / Paul G Saffigna and Ian R Phillips

    Fertilizers: Mineral / L.L Hammond and Balu L Bumb

    Fertilizers: Organic / Gary J Gascho

    Fertilizers: Types and Formulations / Douglas Robert McGuffog

    Fertilizers: Urban Waste and Sludges / Rory O Maguire and James Thomas Sims

    Fire and Soils / Partap K Khanna and John Raison

    Fluid Flow: Modeling / John L Nieber

    Food Crops: Zinc and Iron Biofortification / Yashbir Singh Shivay and Rajendra Prasad

    Food Security and Soil Water Management / Mark W Rosegrant, Ephraim Nkonya, and Rowena A Valmonte-Santos

    Food Security: Agricultural Productivity and Resources / Keith D Wiebe

    Food Security: Soil Degradation, Global Scale / Michael A Zoebisch and Eddy De Pauw

    Food Security: Soil Degradation, Local and Eco-Regional Scale / Sara J Scherr

    Forest Soils / Nicholas Comerford and Thomas Fox

    Forest Soils: Calcium Depletion / Tom G Huntington

    Forest Soils: Major / Ken Van Rees

    Forest Soils: Nutrient Cycling / Neil W Foster and Jagtar S Bhatti

    Forest Soils: Properties and Site Productivity / Paul A Arp and Helmut H Krause

    Freeze and Thaw: Diurnal / Joseph L Pikul

    Frozen Soils: Water Relations / John M Baker

    Fungi / Serita Frey

    Future of Soil Science / Eric C Brevik, Samuel J Indorante, Dylan E Beaudette, and Richard W Arnold

    Gas and Vapor Phase Transport / Dennis E Rolston

    Gelisols / James G Bockheim

    Geologic Carbon Capture and Storage / Sean I Plasynski, John T Litynski, Timothy R Carr,

    Howard G McIlvried, and Rameshwar D Srivastava

    Geology and Soil / Kenneth R Olson

    Geomorphology / Robin N Thwaites

    Geophysical Methods / Barry J Allred, Viacheslav I Adamchuk, Raphael A Viscarra Rossel,

    Jim Doolittle, Robert S Freeland, Katherine R Grote, and Dennis L Corwin

    Geostatistics / Anja Gassner and Ewald Schnug

    GIS Integration: Remote Sensing / Egide Nizeyimana

    Global Resources / Paul Reich and Hari Eswaran

    Grass Strip Hydrology / Hossein Ghadiri and Calvin W Rose

    Grasslands Soils / Douglas D Malo

    Grazing Lands: Gaseous Emissions / Lipismita Samal, Veerasamy Sejian, M Bagath,

    R.U Suganthi, Raghavendra Bhatta, and Rattan Lal

    Green Revolution: China North Eastern Plains / Xiangbin Kong and Rattan Lal

    Greenhouse Effect / Rattan Lal

    Growing Media / Nazim Gruda, Jean Caron, Munoo Prasad, and Michael Maher

    Gulley Erosion / Fenli Zheng, Chihua Huang, and Ximeng Xu

    Gypsic Soils / Juan Herrero and Jaime Boixadera

    Gypsic Soils: Gypsum Formation / Ahmet R Mermut and Hossein Khademi

    Hard-Setting Soils / Richard S.B Greene

    Health / Robin F Harris and D.E Romig

    Heat and Water Movement / Gerald N Flerchinger

    Heat Capacity / Surinder Kumar Jalota and B.S Ghuman

    Heat Flux / Thomas J Sauer

    Heavy Metals / Mike J McLaughlin

    History of Soil Science / Eric C Brevik and Artemi Cerdà

    History of Soil Science: 1927–2000 / Fred P Miller

    History of Soil Science: Early to Mid-20th Century / John P Tandarich

    Histosols / David L Lindbo and Deborah A Kozlowski

    Human Culture and Soils / Daniel Hillel

    Human Dimensions: Soil Sustainability / Mary Seely, Patrik Klintenberg, and Claus Hager

    Human Health and Soil / Charles F Sing and David B Sing

    Human Society and Soil / Rattan Lal

    Human Society and the Planet: Soil as a Heritage / Fred P Miller

    Hydraulic Conductivity / Jacob H Dane, Marc Jalbert, and Jan W Hopmans

    Hydrologic Cycle / Keith R.J Smettem

    Hydropedology / Henry Lin

    Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Compounds / Tomas Simon

    Hydrophobicity / Joerg Bachmann, Abraham Marmur, and Markus Deurer

    Inceptisols / John M Galbraith, Kenneth Scheffe, and Shawn McVey

    India: Problems and Potentialities / S.K Singh, S Chattaraj, N.G Patil, S.K Ray, and S Chatterji

    Indigenous Soil Management / Karl Herweg

    Indo-Gangetic Plain: Agro-Ecological Regions / Jaya N Surya, R.P Yadav, G.S Sidhu, and S.K Singh

    Industrial Waste / Warren Dick

    Infiltration: Management / Jutta Rogasik, Kerstin Panten, Ewald Schnug, and Helmut Rogasik

    Infiltration: Properties / Walter J Rawls

    Inorganic Carbon: Analysis / Richard R Drees and C Tom Hallmark

    Inorganic Carbon: Climate and Time / Lee C Nordt

    Inorganic Carbon: Composition and Formation / H Curtis Monger and Larry P Wilding

    Inorganic Carbon: Global Carbon Cycle / William H Schlesinger

    Inorganic Carbon: Global Stocks / Larry P Wilding, Lee C Nordt, and John M Kimble

    Inorganic Carbon: Land Use Impacts / Donald L Suarez

    Inorganic Carbon: Modeling / Leslie D McFadden and Ronald G Amundson

    Insect Survival: Subzero Temperature / Mike M Ellsbury

    Integrated Nutrient Management / Bal Ram Singh and Ram C Dalal

    Integrated Nutrient Management: Sustainability / G.S Saroa and Rattan Lal

    International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC) / David Dent

    International Union of Soil Sciences / Stephen Nortcliff

    Ion Exchange / Bryon W Bache

    Iron Oxides / Nikolla P Qafoku and James Amonette

    Irrigation / Jack Keller

    Irrigation: Efficiency / Terry A Howell

    Irrigation: Erosion / Robert E Sojka and David L Bjorneberg

    Irrigation: Historical Perspective / Robert E Sojka, David L Bjorneberg, and J.A Entry

    Irrigation: Soil Salinity / James D Rhoades

    Jhum: Cultivation / Arun Jyoti Nath, Biplab Brahma, Rattan Lal, and Ashesh Kumar Das

    Jhum: Shifting Agriculture / P.S Ramakrishnan

    Land Capability Analysis / Michael J Singer

    Land Capability Classification / Thomas E Fenton

    Land Evaluation / J Herbert Huddleston

    Land Forms / Carolyn G Olson

    Land Husbandry / Francis Shaxson and Malcolm Douglas

    Land Restoration / Richard W Bell

    Land Use: Historic / J Douglas Helms, Hari Eswaran, and Paul Reich

    Land Use: Land Cover / Andrew K Skidmore

    Land Use: Planning and Geographic Information System (GIS) / Egide Nizeyimana and

    Landfill Sites: Revegetation / Gilbert Yuk-sing Chan and Ming H Wong

    Landscape / George Hall

    Landscape: Classification / Philip Schoeneberger

    Landscape: Development and Erosion / Jon Harbor

    Landscape: Elements / Douglas Wysocki and C William Zanner

    Landscape: Relationships / Timothy A Quine

    Landslide and Landcreep / Jau-Yau Lu and Hao-Jung Shieh

    Law and Legal Issues / Ian Hannam and Ben Boer

    Law and Legal Issues: Land as Property / Paul Martin and John Page

    Leaching and Illuviation / Lynn E Moody

    Liming and Lime Materials / Mark K Conyers

    Loess / Fred E Rhoton and Helaine W Markewich

    Loess Plateau / Fenli Zheng, Ximeng Xu, and Xiubin He

    Low-Carbon Technology: Brazilian Semiarid Ecosystems / Antonio Pereira Filho,

    Vanderlise Giongo, Tony Jarbas Ferreira Cunha, Jose Texeira Filho, Tayane de Lima Santos,

    and Luiz Fernando Carvalho Leite

    Lower Himalayas: Soil Management / Anup Das, Ramkrushna Gi, Badapmain Makdoh,

    Dibyendu Sarkar, Jayanta Layek, Sandip Mandal, and Rattan Lal

    Macroporosity / Daniel Gimenez and Daniel Hirmas

    Magnesium / N.S Bolan, K Arulmozhiselvan, and P Paramasivam

    Manganese: Brazilian Soils / Diego Antonio França de Freitas, Nilton Curi, and

    Nestor Kämpf

    Manure Management: Gaseous Emissions / Veerasamy Sejian, Lipismita Samal, M Bagath, R.U Suganthi, Raghavendra Bhatta, and Rattan Lal

    Manure: Compost and Biosolids / Bahman Eghball and Kenneth A Barbarick

    Mapping Soil Carbon / Budiman Minasny, Brendan Malone, and Alex B McBratney

    Mapping Soil Carbon: Stocks in Turkey / Gönül Aydın, Mehmet Ali Çullu, Sabit Erşahin,

    Erhan Akça, Emrah Erdoğan, Levent Atatanır, Alper Yorulmaz, Ahmet Çilek, Merve Ersoy,

    Somayyeh Rezzaghi Miavaghi, Selim Kapur, and Rattan Lal

    Materials and Soils / Selim Kapur, Erhan Akça, and Takanori Nagano

    Mediterranean Agriculture: Rainfed, Nitrogen Use Efficiency / Àngela D Bosch Serra

    Metal—Clay Interactions / Dean Hesterberg

    Microbial Biomass: Measurement / K.R Islam and S.R Wright

    Microbial Communities / K.R Islam and S.R Wright

    Micromorphology and Soil Quality / Ahmet R Mermut

    Micronutrients and Human Health / Ram Phal Narwal, R.S Malik, S.K Malhotra, and Bal Ram Singh

    Mine Soils: Measuring Geogenic Carbon / David A.N Ussiri and Rattan Lal

    Mine Soils: Miscanthus Platations / Jose G Guzman and Rattan Lal

    Mine Soils: Open Cut Mine Rehabilitation / Douglas J Dollhopf

    Mine Soils: Reclamation and Soil Carbon Sequestration / Vasant A Akala and Rattan Lal

    Minerals: Amorphous / April L Ulery

    Minerals: Primary / Nikolaos I Barbayiannis and Vissarion Z Keramidas

    Minerals: Secondary / Deborah A Soukup

    Minerals: Solubility / Wayne P Robarge

    Minirhizotron / Verónica Muñoz-Romero, Luis López-Bellido, F Javier López-Bellido, and Rafael J López-Bellido

    Mites / Hans Klompen

    Modern Civilization and Soils / Kenneth R Olson

    Mulch Farming / Rattan Lal

    Mycorrhiza of Forest Ecosystems / Ian A Dickie

    Mycorrhizae: Soil Quality / Ibrahim Ortaş

    Nanofertilizers / Ruiqiang Liu and Rattan Lal

    Natural Resources: Interaction with Soil / Dennis J Greenland

    Nematodes / Christien H Ettema

    Nematodes and Soil / Wilfrida Decraemer

    Nexus Approach: Resource Management for Soil Productivity / Kai Schwärzel,

    Reza Ardakanian, Tamara Avellán, and Lulu Zhang

    Nitrate Leaching Index / Harold M van Es and Jorge A Delgado

    Nitrate Leaching Management / John J Meisinger, Jorge A Delgado, and Ashok Alva

    Nitrogen and its Transformations / Oswald Van Cleemput and Pascal Boeckx

    Nitrogen Index / Jorge A Delgado

    Nitrogen-15: Utilization / Jorge Benitez-Vega, Luis López-Bellido, Ramón Redondo, and

    Rafael J López-Bellido

    Nitrous Oxide Emissions: Agricultural Soils / John R Freney

    Nitrous Oxide Emissions: Paddy Soils / Jianfu Xue, Xin Zhao, and Hailin Zhang

    Nitrous Oxide Emissions: Sources, Sinks, and Strategies / Katsu Minami

    No Till / Paul W Unger

    Nutrient Management / Jorge A Delgado

    Nutrient Management: Fertility and / John L Havlin

    Nutrients: Deficiency and Toxicity Symptoms / Noel J Grundon

    Nutrients: Diffusion, Bioavailability, and Plant Uptake / Niels Erik Nielsen

    Nutrients: Interactions in Soil—Plant System / Fusuo S Zhang, J Shen, and Y.-G Zhu

    Nutrients: Water Interactions / Ardell D Halvorson

    Organic Agriculture / Kathleen Delate

    Organic Carbon: Assessment Methods / K.R Islam

    Organic Carbon: Sequestration Concepts / Kenneth R Olson

    Organic Carbon: Subsoil Pools / Klaus Lorenz and Rattan Lal

    Organic Farming: China / Yuxin Miao, Fusuo Zhang, and Fanghao Wang

    Organic Fertilization: Heavy Metal Uptake / Ewald Schnug, Alexandra Izosimova, and Renata Gaj

    Organisms and Soil Food Webs / David C Coleman

    Organo-Mineral Relationships / Claire Chenu, Alain F Plante, and Pascale Puget

    Oxisols / Stanley W Buol

    Pampas, The / Martín Díaz-Zorita and Daniel E Buschiazzo

    Pantanal, The / Henrique de Oliveira, Amaury de Carvalho Filho, Carlos Ernesto Reynauld G Schaefer, and Evaldo Luis Cardoso

    Paramos Soils / Pascal Podwojewski and Jérôme Poulenard

    Particle Density / Keith R.J Smettem

    Particle Packing / Satish C Gupta and D.P Thoma

    Particle Shape / Brian M Schafer

    Particle Size / Hwat Bing So and Harold R Geering

    Peatlands / Dale H Vitt and Paul Short

    Pedological Modeling / Ronald G Amundson

    Pedometrics / Alex B McBratney and Budiman Minasny

    Pedotransfer Functions / J.H.M Wösten

    Permafrost: Soil Temperature and Special Problems / Douglas Kane and Julia Boike

    Petrocalcic Horizons / Alain Ruellan

    pH / Grant W Thomas

    Phosphorus / John Ryan and Abdul Rashid

    Phosphorus: Manure and Diet Modification / Rory O Maguire, John T Brake, and

    Peter W Plumstead

    Phosphorus: Plant Nutrition and Microorganism Contribution / Bettina Eichler-Löbermann, Christel Baum, Silke Ruppel, and Ewald Schnug

    Phosphorus: Spatial Speciation in Agricultural Soils / Anja Gassner and Ewald Schnug

    Phytoremediation / Khan Towhid Osman and Md Abul Kashem

    Plant Growth: Oxygen Diffusion Rate / Witold Stepniewski

    Plant Nutrients / Volker Roemheld

    Plant Nutrients: Intensity, Quantity, and Buffer Power / Ram C Dalal

    Plant Nutrients: Sufficiency and Requirements / Kanwar L Sahrawat

    Plastic Properties / Gunnar Kirchhof

    Plinthite and Petroplinthite / Eswaran Padmanabhan and Hari Eswaran

    Podzols / Peter Buurman

    Polar Regions, The / Charles Tarnocai and Iain Campbell

    Pollution / Zulkuf Kaya

    Pollution: Industrial Waste / Winfried E.H Blum, Walter W Wenzel, Wolfgang Friesl-Hanl,

    and Martin H Gerzabek

    Pollution: Non-Point Source / Ravendra Naidu, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Peter Dillon,

    Rai Kookana, Ray Correll, and Walter W Wenzel

    Pollution: Organic and Inorganic / A Paul Schwab

    Pollution: Persistent Organic / Mark Radosevich and E Danielle Rhine

    Pollution: Point Source / Ravendra Naidu, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Peter Dillon, Rai Kookana, Ray Correll, and Walter W Wenzel

    Porosity: Pore Size Distribution / Keith C Cameron and Graeme D Buchan

    Potassium / Philippe Hinsinger

    Potassium: Dynamics and Mineralogy / A.V Shanwal and S.S Dahiya

    Potassium: Nutrition in Semi-Arid Tropics / D.L Oswalt

    Power Plants: Carbon Dioxide Capture / Sean I Plasynski, Thomas J Feeley, Timothy Fout,

    Howard G McIlvried, and Rameshwar D Srivastava

    Precision Agriculture: Engineering Aspects / Joel T Walker, Reza Ehsani, and Matthew O Sullivan

    Precision Agriculture: Fertilization / Silvia H Haneklaus and Ewald Schnug

    Precision Agriculture: Nutrient Cycling / Robert J Lascano

    Precision Agriculture: Remote Sensing / Kerstin Panten, Holger Lilienthal, Erik Zillmann,

    Silvia H Haneklaus, and Ewald Schnug

    Productivity: Natural and Anthropogenic Disturbances / Douglas G Maynard and Charlotte E Norris

    Protection: Policy of the European Union / Irene L Heuser and Luca Montanarella

    Protozoa / Bryan S Griffiths

    Pyrite / Michael J Borda

    Pyrogenic Carbon / Barry G Rawlins

    Quality / Ed G Gregorich

    Quality Index: Soil / Toru Nakajima

    Quality: Assessment by Interpolation Techniques / Vincent Obade

    Quality: Carbon and Nitrogen Gases / Philippe Rochette, Reynald Lemke, and Sean McGinn

    Quality: Critical Limits and Standardization / Martin R Carter

    Quality: Erosion / Craig Ditzler

    Quality: Indicators / Graham P Sparling

    Quality: Productivity / Mike H Beare

    Quality: Soil and Water / Todd Nissen and Michelle Wander

    Radiometric Survey / Barry G Rawlins and Raphael A Viscarra Rossel

    Radionuclides / Philip M Jardine

    Raindrop Impact and Splash Erosion / Hossein Ghadiri

    Rapid Soil Analysis: Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy / Keith D Shepherd and Markus G Walsh

    Rare Earth Elements / Zhengyi Hu, Gerd Sparovek, Silvia H Haneklaus, and Ewald Schnug

    Redox Phenomena / Bruce R James

    Rehabilitation: Indicators and Monitoring / David Jasper

    Religious Aspects of Soil—Human Relationships / Verena Winiwarter and Winfried E.H Blum

    Rendzina / Thomas E Fenton

    Resilience / Moses M Tenywa, J.G.M Majaliwa, and A Lufafa

    Resilience: Land Use and Soil Management / Soojin J Park

    Resilience: Quality and / Rattan Lal

    Resilience: Restoration / F.W.T Penning de Vries and Eric T Craswell

    Respiration / Pierre A Jacinthe and Rattan Lal

    Restoration Ecology / Richard Hobbs

    Restoration: Success and Completion Criteria / Sam C Ward

    Rice Paddies: Methane Emissions / Ronald L Sass

    Rice Paddies: Methane Emissions, Mitigating / Kazuyuki Yagi

    Rice Paddies: Methanogenesis / Ronald L Sass

    Rice Paddies: Soil Management / Xin Zhao, Jianfu Xue, and Hailin Zhang

    Rocks / Vsevolod V Dobrovolsky

    Root Growth: Pressure at the Soil—Root Interface / Rabi K Misra

    Root Monitoring System / Zhikuan Jia, Pute Wu, Qingfang Han, Junfeng Nie, Ruixia Ding, and Yufeng Zou

    Salt-Affected Soils / Anna Eynard, Rattan Lal, and Keith D Wiebe

    Salt-Affected Soils: Nitrous Oxide Emissions / G.S Dheri, Babu S Brar, and Debankur Sanyal

    Satellite Mapping / Bruce E Frazier

    Scaling Effects / Yakov A Pachepsky, Walter J Rawls, and John W Crawford

    Sediment: Influence on Aquatic Life / Suzanne M Gray

    Sedimentation Control and Erosion: Engineering Techniques / Jose Miguel Reichert and Elemar Antonino Cassol

    Seepage / Patricia M Gallagher

    Selenium / Gunnar Gissel-Nielsen

    Serpentinitic Soils / Rebecca Burt and Michael A Wilson

    Sesquioxides / Joey N Shaw and Larry T West

    Shrinkage / Des McGarry and Don F Yule

    Silica: Pedogenic Accumulation / Katherine J Kendrick

    Silicon and Sodium / Jian Feng Ma

    Slaking, Dispersion, and Crust Formation / Hwat Bing So

    Social and Behavioral Sciences’ Contribution to Soil Science / Sven B Lundstedt

    Sodic Soils / Pichu Rengasamy

    Sodic Soils: Formation and Global Distribution / Brian Murphy

    Sodic Soils: Humid Regions / Samuel J Indorante

    Sodic Soils: Irrigation Farming / David Burrow

    Sodic Soils: Physical Properties and Behavior / Hwat Bing So

    Sodic Soils: Processes, Characteristics, and Classification / Pichu Rengasamy

    Sodic Soils: Reclamation / Jock Churchman

    Sodicity: Subsoil / Kwong Yin Chan

    Soil Carbon Map: Africa / Arwyn Jones, Roland Hiederer, and Luca Montanarella

    Soil Carbon Sequestration: Ethiopia / Ambachew Demessie, Bal Ram Singh, and Rattan Lal

    Soil Carbon: Compositional and Isotopic Analysis / James Moran, M Lizabeth Alexander, and Alexander Laskin

    Soil Carbon: Farming and Economic Aspects / Bruce A McCarl

    Soil Conservation: Incentives / David Sanders

    Soil Conservation: Strategies / Winfried E.H Blum

    Soil Conservation: U.S Historical Perspective / Dana D York

    Soil Degradation: Global Assessment / Selim Kapur and Erhan Akça

    Soil Enzymes / Cherukumalli Srinivasa Rao, Minakshi Grover, Sumanta Kundu, and Susheelendra Desai

    Soil Organic Matter (SOM) / Rattan Lal

    Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Accumulation / Sylvie A Quideau

    Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Available Water Capacity / Tom G Huntington

    Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Characterization / Christian Feller

    Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Composition and Dynamics / Cornelia Rumpel, M.F Dignac, and Abad Chabbi

    Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Global Carbon Cycle / Keith Paustian

    Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Global Distribution / Wilfred M Post

    Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Historical Concepts / Christian Feller

    Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Landscape / Henry H Janzen, B.H Ellert, and D.W Anderson

    Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Management / R Cesar Izaurralde and Carlos C Cerri

    Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Mass Spectrometry Data Analysis / Nikola Tolic, Malak M Tfaily, Yufeng Shen, Rosalie Chu, Thomas Fillmore, Rui Zhao, Kent Bloodsworth, Errol Robinson, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, and Nancy J Hess

    Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Modeling / Peter Smith

    Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Molecular Simulations / Amity Andersen

    Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Nutrient Dynamics / Charles W Rice

    Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Solvent-Based High Resolution Mass Spectrometry / Malak M Tfaily, Yufeng Shen, Nikola Tolic, Jennifer Kyle, Rosalie Chu, Thomas Fillmore,

    Rui Zhao, Kent Bloodsworth, Errol Robinson, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, and Nancy J Hess

    Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Structure and Characterization / Georg Guggenberger

    Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Turnover / Johan Six and Julie D Jastrow

    Soluble Salts: Translocation and Accumulation / Jimmie L Richardson

    Solute Transport / Arne E Olsen and James W Jawitz

    Spectral Mixtures: Soil—Plant / Alfredo R Huete

    Spodosols / Delbert Mokma

    Strontium / Silvia H Haneklaus and Ewald Schnug

    Structure / Eileen J Kladivko

    Structure: Belowground Management / Ken A Olsson and Bruce Cockroft

    Structure: Earthworms / Martin Shipitalo and Tayfun Korucu

    Structure: Pedological Concepts and Water Flow / Clinton C Truman and

    Donald P Franzmeier

    Structure: Plant Establishment / Douglas L Karlen

    Structure: Roots / Alvin J.M Smucker

    Sub-Irrigation / Norman R Fausey

    Sugarcane Fields: Harvest Systems and Residue Management / Newton La Scala Jr.,

    Ricardo De Oliveira Bordonal, Eduardo Barretto De Figueiredo, Alan Rodrigo Panosso, Mara Regina Moitinho, and Mariana Marotti Corradi

    Sulfate and Sulfide Minerals / Delvin S Fanning and Steven N Burch

    Sulfur / Ewald Schnug, Silvia H Haneklaus, and Elke Bloem

    Sulfur: Chemical Behavior in the Rhizosphere / Zhengyi Hu, Silvia H Haneklaus, and Ewald Schnug

    Sulfur: Nutrition / Silvia H Haneklaus, Elke Bloem, and Ewald Schnug

    Surface Area: Specific / L.A Graham Aylmore

    Surface Management / Kwong Yin Chan

    Surface Water: Nitrogen Enrichment / Tim P Burt and Penny E Widdison

    Surface Water: Pollution by Nitrogen Fertilizers / Gregory McIsaac

    Sustainable Agriculture: Social Aspects / Frederick H Buttel

    Sustainable Agriculture: Soil Quality / John W Doran and Ed G Gregorich

    Sustainable Development and Sustainability / Alan D Hecht and Joseph Fiksel

    Tailings: Minerals Processing Residue Rehabilitation / Lloyd R Hossner and Hamid Shahandeh

    Taxonomies: U.S Soil Taxonomy and Indian Scenario / Tapas Bhattacharyya and Dilip Kumar Pal

    Taxonomy / Mark H Stolt

    Temperature Measurement / Kevin McInnes

    Tepetates: Mexico / Jorge D Etchevers, Claudia Hidalgo, C Prat, and P Quantin

    Termites / David E Bignell and John A Holt

    Terra Preta (Black Earths) / Kurt Spokas, Jose Marques Jr., Newton La Scala Jr., Ed Nater, and Diego S Siqueira

    Terra Preta de Indio / Johannes Lehmann

    Testing / Yash P Kalra and Jagtar S Bhatti

    Texture / Harold R Geering and Hwat Bing So

    Tillage Erosion: Description and Process / Michael J Lindstrom

    Tillage Erosion: Measurement Techniques / David A Lobb

    Tillage Erosion: Properties and Productivity Effects / Tom E Schumacher

    Tillage Erosion: Relationship to Water Erosion / Gerard Govers

    Tillage Erosion: Terrace Formation / Seth M Dabney and Dalmo A.N Vieira

    Tillage: Gas Exchange / Donald C Reicosky

    Tilth / Jerry L Hatfield

    Time and Space: Soils in / Neil E Smeck and C Lee Burras

    Torrential Erosion: Himalayas / Ram Prashad Yadav

    Trace Metal Contamination / Åsgeir Rossebø Almås and Bal Ram Singh

    Tropics and Subtropics / Hari Eswaran and Eswaran Padmanabhan

    Turbations / Brad D Lee and Robert C Graham

    Turfgrass: Protection of Soil and Water / James A Murphy and Stephanie L Murphy

    Ultisols / Joey N Shaw

    Uranium Contamination / Ewald Schnug, Roberta Bottino Montolar Sparovek, Maria del

    Carmen Lamas, Sylvia L Kratz, Jurgen Fleckenstein, and Susanne Schroetter

    Urban Lands: Abandoned / Joshua W Beniston and William D Shuster

    Urban Lands: and Construction Sites / Wolfgang Burghardt

    Urban Lands: Management / Klaus Lorenz

    Urban Wastewater for Irrigation: Heavy Metals / P.S Minhas and K Lal

    Urea: Subsoiling and Controlled Release / Tangyuan Ning, Rattan Lal, Zengjia Li, and Min Zhang

    Value of Soil to Humans / Rattan Lal

    Variability / Josef H Görres

    Variability: Spatial / Brian Slater

    Variable Charge Soils: Mineralogy and Chemistry / Eric Van Ranst, Nikolla P Qafoku,

    Andrew Noble, and Ren-kou Xu

    Vertisols / Wouter A Blokhuis

    Vertisols: Surface Crack Management / J Somasundaram, Nishant K Sinha, Ashok K Patra,

    and Rattan Lal

    Vesicular Crusts / Patrick Drohan

    Village Bamboos / Arun Jyoti Nath, Ashesh Kumar Das, and Rattan Lal

    Waste Rock and Overburden Dumps: Rehabilitation / Martin V Fey, R.D O’Brien, and A.J Mills

    Wastewater: Treatment and Utilization in Irrigation / Yona Chen and Jorge Tarchitzky

    Water Conservation / Paul W Unger

    Water Content / Tom J Jackson

    Water Content: Passive and Active Microwave Remote Sensing / Eric D Warner and Gary W Petersen

    Water Erosion / David Favis-Mortlock

    Water Erosion: Empirical Models / John M Laflen

    Water Erosion: Hybrid Models / Jeffrey G Arnold, Kevin W King, and Jimmy R Williams

    Water Erosion: Modeling / Calvin W Rose

    Water Erosion: Process-Based Modeling / Mark A Nearing

    Water Infiltration / Manoj K Shukla and Rattan Lal

    Water Management: Computer Modeling / Laj R Ahuja and Liwang Ma

    Water Management: Harvesting / Gary W Frasier

    Water Management: Use Efficiency / David C Nielsen

    Water Measurement: Methods / Des McGarry

    Water Range: Least-Limiting / Alvaro Pires da Silva, Beverly D Kay, Cássio A Tormena, Silvia Imhoff, Douglas L Karlen, and Joseph G Benjamin

    Water Retention / Satish C Gupta and Dong Wang

    Water: Plant-Available / Argyrios Gerakis and Joe T Ritchie

    Water-Repellent Soils / Anna Eynard, Rattan Lal, and Keith D Wiebe

    Watershed Approach / Timothy R Green and Jan van Schilfgaarde

    Watershed Management: Remote Sensing and GIS Applications / A.V Shanwal and S.P Singh

    Weathering / Dominique Righi

    Weathering: Carbon Sequestration / William Berry Lyons, Jerry M Bigham, Anne E Carey, and Rattan Lal

    Wetlands / Ralph W Tiner

    Wetlands: Biodiversity / Jean-Claude Lefeuvre and Virginie Bouchard

    Wetlands: Carbon Sequestration / Virginie Bouchard and Matthew Cochran

    Wetlands: Conservation Policy / Clayton Rubec

    Wetlands: Economic Value / Gayatri Acharya

    Wetlands: Gaseous Emissions / S.K Nag

    Wetlands: Methane Emission / Anna Ekberg and Torben Røjle Christensen

    Wetlands: Sedimentation and Ecological Engineering / Timothy C Granata and Jay F Martin

    Wind Erosion: Climate Change / Alan Busacca and David Chandler

    Wind Erosion: Control Measures / Gary L Tibke

    Wind Erosion: Environmental Effects / R Scott Van Pelt

    Wind Erosion: Field Measurement / R Scott Van Pelt and Ted M Zobeck

    Wind Erosion: Global Hot Spots / Andrew Warren

    Wind Erosion: Micrometeorology / Giles F.S Wiggs

    Wind Erosion: Modeling / Lawrence J Hagen

    Wind Erosion: Principles / Larry D Stetler

    Wind Erosion: Soil Quality and Productivity / John Leys

    Windblown Dust / Dale Gillette

    Wind-Driven Rain: Erosion / Gunay Erpul, L Darrell Norton, and Donald Gabriels

    World Reference Base for Soil Resources / Peter Schad and Stefaan Dondeyne


    Rattan Lal, Ph.D., is a distinguished university professor of soil science and director of the Carbon Management and Sequestration Center at The Ohio State University, and is an adjunct professor at the University of Iceland. After completing his education at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (B.Sc., 1963), Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (M.Sc., 1965), and the Ohio State University, Columbus (Ph. D,1968), he served as a fellow with the University of Sydney, Australia (1968-69), soil physicist at IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria (1969-87), and professor of soil science at OSU (1987-to-date). He has written 12 books and edited/co-edited 56 books.