Nanoparticle- and Microparticle-based Delivery Systems : Encapsulation, Protection and Release of Active Compounds book cover
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Nanoparticle- and Microparticle-based Delivery Systems
Encapsulation, Protection and Release of Active Compounds





ISBN 9781482233155
Published August 12, 2014 by CRC Press
572 Pages 141 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Recent developments in nanoparticle and microparticle delivery systems are revolutionizing delivery systems in the food industry. These developments have the potential to solve many of the technical challenges involved in creating encapsulation, protection, and delivery of active ingredients, such as colors, flavors, preservatives, vitamins, minerals, and nutraceuticals. Nanoparticle- and Microparticle-based Delivery Systems: Encapsulation, Protection and Release of Active Compounds explores various types of colloidal delivery systems available for encapsulating active ingredients, highlighting their relative advantages and limitations and their use.

Written by an international authority known for his clear and rigorous technical writing style, this book discusses the numerous kinds of active ingredients available and the issues associated with their encapsulation, protection, and delivery. The author takes a traditional colloid science approach and emphasizes the practical aspects of formulation of particulate- and emulsion-based delivery systems with food applications. He then covers the physicochemical and mechanical methods available for manufacturing colloidal particles, highlighting the importance of designing particles for specific applications.

The book includes chapters devoted specifically to the three major types of colloidal delivery systems available for encapsulating active ingredients in the food industry: surfactant-based, emulsion-based, and biopolymer-based. It then reviews the analytical tools available for characterizing the properties of colloidal delivery systems, presents the mathematical models for describing their properties, and highlights the factors to consider when selecting an appropriate delivery system for a particular application backed up by specific case studies.

Based on insight from the author’s own experience, the book describes why delivery systems are needed, the important factors to consider when designing them, methods of characterizing them, and specific examples of the range of food-grade delivery systems available. It gives you the necessary knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of developments within the current research literature in this rapidly growing field and the confidence to perform reliable experimental investigations according to modern international standards.

Table of Contents

Background and Context
Introduction
Terminology
Active Ingredients and the Need for Encapsulation
Flavors and Colors
Antioxidants
Antimicrobials
Bioactive Lipids
Bioactive Carbohydrates
Bioactive Proteins
Bioactive Minerals
Challenges to Incorporating Active Ingredients in Foods
Low Solubility
Inappropriate Physical State
Poor Physicochemical Stability
Poor Biochemical Stability
Poor Flavor Profile
Poor Handling Characteristics
Fabrication of Delivery Systems
Surfactant-Based Systems
Emulsion-Based Systems
Biopolymer-Based Systems
Hybrid Systems
Nature-Inspired Systems
Desirable Characteristics of Delivery Systems
Food-Grade
Economic Production
Food Matrix Compatibility
Protection against Chemical Degradation
Loading Capacity, Encapsulation Efficiency, and Retention
Delivery Mechanism
Bioavailability/Bioactivity
Release Mechanisms
Diffusion
Dissolution
Erosion
Fragmentation
Swelling
Designing Release Profiles
Summary
References

Active Ingredients
Introduction
Lipid-Based Ingredients
Neutral Oils
Flavor and Essential Oils
Oil-Soluble Colorants
Lipophilic Nutraceuticals
Challenges to Delivery of Lipid-Based Ingredients
Protein-Based Ingredients
Proteins
Peptides and Amino Acids
Challenges to Delivery of Proteins, Peptides, and Amino acids
Carbohydrate-Based Ingredients
Polysaccharides
Digestible Polysaccharides
Indigestible Polysaccharides
Monosaccharides and Oligosaccharides
Challenges to Delivery of Carbohydrates
Mineral-Based Ingredients
Iron
Zinc
Calcium
Challenges to Delivery of Minerals
Microorganisms
Probiotics
Challenges to Delivery of Probiotics
Summary
References

Particle Characteristics and Their Impact on Physicochemical Properties of Delivery Systems
Introduction
Particle Building Blocks
Molecules, Particles, and Phases
Molecular and Colloidal Interactions
Particle Characteristics
Composition
Morphology
Concentration
Particle Physicochemical Properties
Particle Dimensions
Particle Charge
Particle Interactions
Loading Characteristics
Release Characteristics
Impact of Particle Properties on Physicochemical Properties
Rheology and Texture
Optical Properties and Appearance
Stability and Shelf Life
Molecular Partitioning and Transport
Summary
References

Mechanical Particle Fabrication Methods
Introduction
Homogenization Methods
Higher-Shear Mixers
Colloid Mills
High-Pressure Valve Homogenizers
Ultrasonic Homogenizers
Microfluidization
Membrane and Microchannel Homogenizers
Atomization Methods
Spray Drying
Spray Chilling
Rotary Disk Atomization
Electrospraying
Milling Methods
Extrusion Methods
Coating Methods
Supercritical Fluid Methods
Summary
References

Surfactant-Based Delivery Systems
Introduction
Building Blocks: Surfactants
Molecular Characteristics
Physicochemical Properties
Surfactant Classification Schemes
Food-Grade Surfactants
Micelle and Microemulsion Delivery Systems
Composition and Structure
Formation
Properties
Applications
Liposome Delivery Systems
Composition and Structure
Formation
Properties
Applications
Summary
References

Emulsion-Based Delivery Systems
Introduction
Building Blocks: Fat Droplets
Droplet Concentration
Particle Size
Particle Charge
Interfacial Characteristics
Physical State
Colloidal Interactions
Controlling Droplet Characteristics for Improved Performance
Physicochemical Properties of Emulsions
Appearance
Rheology
Stability
Molecular Distribution and Release Characteristics
Implications for Design of Delivery Systems
Emulsion-Based Delivery Systems
Emulsions and Nanoemulsions
Multiple Emulsions
Multilayer Emulsions
Solid Lipid Particles
Filled Hydrogel Particles
Microclusters
Miscellaneous Systems
Summary
References

Biopolymer-Based Delivery Systems
Introduction
Building Blocks: Biopolymers
Proteins
Polysaccharides
Molecular Interactions
Electrostatic Interactions
Hydrogen Bonding
Hydrophobic Interactions
Excluded Volume Effects
Covalent Interactions
Assembling Biopolymer Structures
Physiochemical Methods for Biopolymer Particle Formation
Formation of Molecular Complexes
Formation of Hydrogel Particles
Mechanical Methods for Biopolymer Particle Formation
Extrusion Methods
Microfluidic Methods
Spray Drying and Other Drying Methods
Antisolvent Precipitation
Emulsion Templating
Shearing Methods
Molding Techniques
Biopolymer Particle Properties
Particle Structure
Particle Electrical Characteristics
Particle Physicochemical Properties
Particle Integrity and Environmental Responsiveness
Potential Applications
Encapsulation and Protection
Controlled Release
Lightening Agents
Texture Modification
Fat Replacement
Summary
References

Delivery System Characterization Methods
Introduction
Particle Characteristics
Particle Concentration
Particle Morphology and Organization
Particle Size
Particle Charge
Particle Physical State
Bulk Physicochemical Properties
Optical Properties
Rheology
Flavor
Protection, Retention, and Release Characteristics
Protection
Retention and Release
Biological Fate
In Vitro Approaches
In Vivo Approaches
In Vitro versus In Vivo Correlations
Measurement of Changes in Delivery System Properties
Summary
References

Selection of Delivery Systems: Case Studies
Introduction
Design Criteria for Colloidal Delivery Systems
Identification of Appropriate Colloidal Delivery Systems
Nutraceutical-Fortified Soft Drinks
Design Criteria
Dairy-Based Functional Beverages Designed to Enhance Nutraceutical Bioavailability
Design Criteria
Potential Delivery Systems
Delivery of Probiotics to the Colon
Design Criteria
Potential Delivery Systems
Controlled Flavor Release
Design Criteria
Protection of Lipophilic Active Agents against Oxidation
Design Criteria
Potential Delivery Systems
Summary
References

Key Physicochemical Concepts
Introduction
Physical States and Phase Transitions
Physical States
Crystallization and Melting
Crystallization and Dissolution
Partitioning Phenomenon
Equilibrium Partitioning Coefficients
Solute Partitioning in Delivery Systems
Mass Transport Processes
Diffusion
Convection
Modeling Release Profiles from Colloidal Delivery Systems
Diffusion
Particle Dissolution
Particle Swelling
Particle Matrix Degradation
Particle Matrix Fragmentation
Establishing Release Mechanisms
Modeling Particle Aggregation
Colloidal Interactions
Calculation of Aggregation Kinetics
Modeling Bioavailability of Bioactives in the GIT
Release of Bioactive Components
Absorption of Bioactive Components
Summary
References
Index

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Author(s)

Biography

David Julian McClements is a Professor at the Department of Food Science at the University of Massachusetts. He specializes in the areas of food biopolymers and colloids, and in particular on the development of food-based structured delivery systems for bioactive components. Dr McClements received his Ph.D. in Food Science (1989) at the University of Leeds (United Kingdom). He then did Post Doctoral Research at the University of Leeds, University of California (Davis) and University College Cork (Ireland). Dr McClements is the sole author of the first and second editions of "Food Emulsions: Principles, Practice and Techniques", co-author of "Advances in Food Colloids" with Prof. Eric Dickinson, and co-editor of "Developments in Acoustics and Ultrasonics", "Understanding and Controlling the Microstructure of Complex Foods", "Designing Functional Foods" and "Oxidation in Foods and Beverages (Volumes 1 and 2)" and "Encapsulation and Delivery Systems for Food Ingredients and Nutraceuticals". In addition, he has published over 460 scientific articles in peer-reviewed journals (with a H-index of 55). Dr McClements has previously received awards from the American Chemical Society, American Oil Chemists Society, Institute of Food Technologists, and University of Massachusetts in recognition of his scientific achievements. His research has been funded by grants from the United States Department of Agriculture, National Science Foundation, US Department of Commerce, Dairy Management Incorporated, and the food industry. He is member of the editorial boards of a number of journals, and has organized workshops, symposia and conferences in the field of food colloids, food emulsions, and delivery systems.