Unit Operations in Food Engineering: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Unit Operations in Food Engineering

1st Edition

By Albert Ibarz, Gustavo V. Barbosa-Canovas

CRC Press

920 pages | 342 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2002-10-29
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Description

In order to successfully produce food products with maximum quality, each stage of processing must be well-designed. Unit Operations in Food Engineering systematically presents the basic information necessary to design food processes and the equipment needed to carry them out. It covers the most common food engineering unit operations in detail, including guidance for carrying out specific design calculations. Initial chapters present transport phenomena basics for momentum, mass, and energy transfer in different unit operations. Later chapters present detailed unit operation descriptions based on fluid transport and heat and mass transfer. Every chapter concludes with a series of solved problems as examples of applied theory.

Table of Contents

PREFACE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

INTRODUCTION TO UNIT OPERATIONS: FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS

Process

Engineering of Food Processes

Transformation and Commercialization of Agricultural Products

Flow Charts: Description of Some Food Processes

Steady and Unsteady States

Batch, Continuous and Semicontinuous Operations

Unit Operations: Classification

Mathematical Set Up of Problems

UNIT SYSTEMS: DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND SIMILARITY

Magnitude and Unit Systems

Absolute Units

Technical Unit Systems

Engineering Unit Systems

International Unit System (SI)

Thermal Units

Conversion of Units

Dimensional Analysis

Buckingham's Theorem

Dimensional Analysis Methods

Similarity Theory

Geometric Similarity

Mechanical Theory

Problems

INTRODUCTION TO TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

Historic Introduction

Transport Phenomena: Definition

Circulation Regimes: Reynolds' Experiment

Mechanisms of Transport Phenomena

Mass Transfer

Energy Transfer

Momentum Transport

Velocity Laws

Coupled Phenomena

MOLECULAR TRANSPORT OF MOMENTUM, ENERGY AND MASS

Introduction

Momentum Transport: Newton's Law of Viscosity

Energy Transfer: Fourier's Law of Heat Conduction

Mass Transfer: Fick's Law of Diffusion

General Equation of Velocity

AIR-WATER MIXTURES

Introduction

Properties of Humid Air

Mollier's Psychrometric Chart for Humid Air

Wet Bulb Temperature

Adiabatic Saturation of Air

Problems

RHEOLOGY OF FOOD PRODUCTS

Introduction

Stress and Strain

Elastic Solids and Newtonian Fluids

Viscometric Functions

Rheological Classification of Fluid Foods

Newtonian Flow

Non-Newtonian Flow

Viscoelasticity

Effect of Temperature

Effect of the Concentration on the Viscosity

Mechanical Models

Rheological Measurements in Semiliquid Foods

Problems

TRANSPORT OF FLUIDS THROUGH PIPES

Introduction

Circulation of Incompressible Fluids

Macroscopic Balance in the Circulation of Fluids

Mechanical Energy Losses

Friction Factors

Design of Piping

Pumps

Problems

CIRCULATION OF FLUID THROUGH POROUS BEDS: FLUIDIZATION

Introduction

Darcy's Law: Permeability

Previous Definitions

Equations of Flow through Porous Beds

Fluidization

Problems

FILTRATION

Introduction

Filtration Fundamentals

Filtration at Constant Pressure Drop

Filtration at Constant Volumetric Rate

Cake Washing

Filtration Capacity

Optimus Filtration Conditions at Constant Pressure

Rotary-Drum Vacuum Filters

Problems

SEPARATION PROCESSES BY MEMBRANES Introduction

Models of Transfer through the Membrane

Models of Transfer through the Polarization Layer

Inverse Osmosis

Ultrafiltration

Design of Inverse Osmosis and Ultrafiltration Systems

Operative Layout of the Modules

Problems

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF FOODS

Thermal Conductivity

Specific Heat

Density

Thermal Diffusivity

Problems

HEAT TRANSFER BY CONDUCTION

Fundamental Equations of Heat Conduction

Steady-State Heat Conduction

Unsteady-State Heat Conduction

Problems

HEAT TRANSFER BY CONVECTION

Introduction

Heat Transfer Coefficients

Concentric Tube Heat Exchangers

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Plate-Type Heat Exchangers

Extended-Surface Heat Exchangers

Scraped-Surface Heat Exchangers

Agitated Vessels with Jacket and Coils

Heat Exchange Efficiency

Problems

HEAT TRANSFER BY RADIATION

Introduction

Fundamental Laws

Properties of Radiation

Vision factors

Interchange of Radiation Energy between Surfaces Separated by Non-Absorbent Media

Coefficient of heat transfer by radiation

Simultaneous heat transfer by convection and radiation

Problems

THERMAL PROCESSING OF FOODS

Introduction

Kinetics of Thermal Destruction

Treatment of Packed Products

Thermal Treatment in the Aseptic Processing

Problems

FOOD PRESERVATION BY COOLING

Freezing

Freezing Temperature

Thermal Properties of Frozen Foods

Freezing Time

Design of Freezing Systems

Refrigeration

Refrigeration Mechanical Systems

Refrigerants

Multipressure Systems

Problems

DEHYDRATION

Introduction

Mixture of Two Air Streams

Material and Heat Balances in Idealized Dryers

Dehydration Mechanisms

Chamber and Bed Dryers

Spray Drying

Freeze-Drying

Other Types of Drying

Problems

EVAPORATION

Introduction

Heat Transfer in Evaporators

Single-Effect Evaporators

Use of Released Vapor

Multiple-Effect Evaporators

Evaporation Equipment

Problems

DISTILLATION

Introduction

Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium

Distillation of Binary Mixtures

Continuous Rectification of Binary Mixtures

Discontinuous Rectification

Steam Distillation

Problems

ABSORPTION

Introduction

Liquid-Gas Equilibrium

Absorption Mechanisms

Packed Columns

Plate Columns

Problems

SOLID-LIQUID EXTRACTION

Introduction

Solid-Liquid Equilibrium

Extraction Methods

Solid-Liquid Extraction Equipment

Applications to the Food Industry

Problems

ADSORPTION AND IONIC EXCHANGE

Introduction

Equilibrium Processes

Process Kinetics

Operation by Stages

Movable Bed Columns

Fixed Bed Columns

Problems

REFERENCES

APPENDIX

INDEX

About the Series

Food Preservation Technology

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013060
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
TEC012000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Food Science