1st Edition

Unit Operations in Food Engineering

920 Pages 342 B/W Illustrations
by CRC Press

920 Pages
by CRC Press

Also available as eBook on:

In order to successfully produce food products with maximum quality, each stage of processing must be well-designed. Unit Operations in Food Engineering systematically presents the basic information necessary to design food processes and the equipment needed to carry them out. It covers the most common food engineering unit operations in detail, including guidance for carrying out specific design calculations. Initial chapters present transport phenomena basics for momentum, mass, and energy transfer in different unit operations. Later chapters present detailed unit operation descriptions based on fluid transport and heat and mass transfer. Every chapter concludes with a series of solved problems as examples of applied theory.

PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

INTRODUCTION TO UNIT OPERATIONS: FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
Process
Engineering of Food Processes
Transformation and Commercialization of Agricultural Products
Flow Charts: Description of Some Food Processes
Batch, Continuous and Semicontinuous Operations
Unit Operations: Classification
Mathematical Set Up of Problems

UNIT SYSTEMS: DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND SIMILARITY
Magnitude and Unit Systems
Absolute Units
Technical Unit Systems
Engineering Unit Systems
International Unit System (SI)
Thermal Units
Conversion of Units
Dimensional Analysis
Buckingham's Theorem
Dimensional Analysis Methods
Similarity Theory
Geometric Similarity
Mechanical Theory
Problems

INTRODUCTION TO TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
Historic Introduction
Transport Phenomena: Definition
Circulation Regimes: Reynolds' Experiment
Mechanisms of Transport Phenomena
Mass Transfer
Energy Transfer
Momentum Transport
Velocity Laws
Coupled Phenomena

MOLECULAR TRANSPORT OF MOMENTUM, ENERGY AND MASS
Introduction
Momentum Transport: Newton's Law of Viscosity
Energy Transfer: Fourier's Law of Heat Conduction
Mass Transfer: Fick's Law of Diffusion
General Equation of Velocity

AIR-WATER MIXTURES
Introduction
Properties of Humid Air
Mollier's Psychrometric Chart for Humid Air
Wet Bulb Temperature
Problems

RHEOLOGY OF FOOD PRODUCTS
Introduction
Stress and Strain
Elastic Solids and Newtonian Fluids
Viscometric Functions
Rheological Classification of Fluid Foods
Newtonian Flow
Non-Newtonian Flow
Viscoelasticity
Effect of Temperature
Effect of the Concentration on the Viscosity
Mechanical Models
Rheological Measurements in Semiliquid Foods
Problems

TRANSPORT OF FLUIDS THROUGH PIPES
Introduction
Circulation of Incompressible Fluids
Macroscopic Balance in the Circulation of Fluids
Mechanical Energy Losses
Friction Factors
Design of Piping
Pumps
Problems

CIRCULATION OF FLUID THROUGH POROUS BEDS: FLUIDIZATION
Introduction
Darcy's Law: Permeability
Previous Definitions
Equations of Flow through Porous Beds
Fluidization
Problems

FILTRATION
Introduction
Filtration Fundamentals
Filtration at Constant Pressure Drop
Filtration at Constant Volumetric Rate
Cake Washing
Filtration Capacity
Optimus Filtration Conditions at Constant Pressure
Rotary-Drum Vacuum Filters
Problems

SEPARATION PROCESSES BY MEMBRANES Introduction
Models of Transfer through the Membrane
Models of Transfer through the Polarization Layer
Inverse Osmosis
Ultrafiltration
Design of Inverse Osmosis and Ultrafiltration Systems
Operative Layout of the Modules
Problems

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF FOODS
Thermal Conductivity
Specific Heat
Density
Thermal Diffusivity
Problems

HEAT TRANSFER BY CONDUCTION
Fundamental Equations of Heat Conduction
Problems

HEAT TRANSFER BY CONVECTION
Introduction
Heat Transfer Coefficients
Concentric Tube Heat Exchangers
Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Plate-Type Heat Exchangers
Extended-Surface Heat Exchangers
Scraped-Surface Heat Exchangers
Agitated Vessels with Jacket and Coils
Heat Exchange Efficiency
Problems

Introduction
Fundamental Laws
Vision factors
Interchange of Radiation Energy between Surfaces Separated by Non-Absorbent Media
Coefficient of heat transfer by radiation
Simultaneous heat transfer by convection and radiation
Problems

THERMAL PROCESSING OF FOODS
Introduction
Kinetics of Thermal Destruction
Treatment of Packed Products
Thermal Treatment in the Aseptic Processing
Problems

FOOD PRESERVATION BY COOLING
Freezing
Freezing Temperature
Thermal Properties of Frozen Foods
Freezing Time
Design of Freezing Systems
Refrigeration
Refrigeration Mechanical Systems
Refrigerants
Multipressure Systems
Problems

DEHYDRATION
Introduction
Mixture of Two Air Streams
Material and Heat Balances in Idealized Dryers
Dehydration Mechanisms
Chamber and Bed Dryers
Spray Drying
Freeze-Drying
Other Types of Drying
Problems

EVAPORATION
Introduction
Heat Transfer in Evaporators
Single-Effect Evaporators
Use of Released Vapor
Multiple-Effect Evaporators
Evaporation Equipment
Problems

DISTILLATION
Introduction
Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium
Distillation of Binary Mixtures
Continuous Rectification of Binary Mixtures
Discontinuous Rectification
Steam Distillation
Problems

ABSORPTION
Introduction
Liquid-Gas Equilibrium
Absorption Mechanisms
Packed Columns
Plate Columns
Problems

SOLID-LIQUID EXTRACTION
Introduction
Solid-Liquid Equilibrium
Extraction Methods
Solid-Liquid Extraction Equipment
Applications to the Food Industry
Problems

Introduction
Equilibrium Processes
Process Kinetics
Operation by Stages
Movable Bed Columns
Fixed Bed Columns
Problems
REFERENCES
APPENDIX
INDEX

Biography

Albert Ibarz, Gustavo V. Barbosa-Canovas