Introduction to Food Process Engineering: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Introduction to Food Process Engineering

1st Edition

By Albert Ibarz, Gustavo V. Barbosa-Canovas

CRC Press

722 pages | 256 B/W Illus.

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Description

Consumer expectations are systematically growing, with demands for foods with a number of attributes, which are sometimes difficult for manufacturers to meet. The engineering processes that are needed to obtain top-quality foods are a major challenge due to the diversity of raw materials, intermediates, and final products. As in any other enterprise, the food industry must optimize each of the steps in the production chain to attain the best possible results. There is no question that a very important aspect to take into consideration when developing a process, designing a food factory, or modifying existing facilities is the in-depth knowledge of the basic engineering aspects involved in a given project.

Introduction to Food Process Engineering covers the fundamental principles necessary to study, understand, and analyze most unit operations in the food engineering domain. It was conceived with two clear objectives in mind: 1) to present all of the subjects in a systematic, coherent, and sequential fashion in order to provide an excellent knowledge base for a number of conventional and unconventional processes encountered in food industry processing lines, as well as novel processes at the research and development stages; 2) to be the best grounding possible for another CRC Press publication, Unit Operations in Food Engineering, Second Edition, by the same authors. These two books can be consulted independently, but at the same time, there is a significant and welcomed match between the two in terms of terminology, definitions, units, symbols, and nomenclature.

Highlights of the book include:

  • Dimensional analysis and similarities
  • Physicochemistry of food systems
  • Heat and mass transfer in food
  • Food rheology
  • Physical properties
  • Water activity
  • Thermal processing
  • Chilling and freezing
  • Evaporation
  • Dehydration
  • Extensive examples, problems, and solutions

Table of Contents

Introduction to Unit Operations

Process

Food Process Engineering

Transformation and Commercialization of Agricultural Products

Flowcharts and Description of Some Food Processes

Steady and Unsteady States

Discontinuous, Continuous, and Semicontinuous Operations

Unit Operations: Classification

Mathematical Setup of the Problems

Unit Systems, Dimensional Analysis, and Similarities

Magnitude and Unit Systems

Dimensional Analysis

Similarity Theory

Problems

Introduction to Transport Phenomena

Historical Introduction

Transport Phenomena

Circulation Regimes: Reynolds Experiment

Transport Phenomena Mechanisms

Momentum, Energy, and Mass Transfer

Introduction

Momentum Transfer: Newton’s Law of Viscosity

Energy Transfer: Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction

Mass Transfer: Fick’s Law of Diffusion

General Equation of Velocity

Macroscopic Balances

Introduction

Macroscopic Mass Balance

Macroscopic Energy Balance

Problems

Physicochemistry of Food Systems

Introduction

General Concepts

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

First Principle of Thermodynamics

Enthalpy

Heat Capacity

Second Principle of Thermodynamics: Entropy

Thermal Machines: Carnot’s Cycle

Third Principle of Thermodynamics

Chemical Thermodynamics

Helmholtz Free Energy

Gibbs Free Energy

Chemical Potential: Phase Equilibrium

Phase Diagram

Mass Transfer

Introduction

Mass Transfer by Diffusion

Mass Transfer by Convection

Unsteady Mass Transfer

Air–Water Interactions

Introduction

Properties of Humid Air

Mollier’s Psychrometric Diagram for Humid Air

Wet Bulb Temperature

Adiabatic Saturation of Air

Problems

Proposed Problems

Water Activity

Introduction

Definition of Water Activity

Methods to Measure Water Act

Prediction of Water Activity in Binary Solutions

Prediction of Water Activity in Multicomponent Solutions

Sorption Isotherms

Problems

Mechanical Properties

Density

Porosity

Size and Shape

Problems

Thermal Properties of Food

Thermal Conductivity

Specific Heat

Thermal Diffusivity

Problems

Optical Properties of Foods

Color

Characteristics of Color

Color Perception

Colorimetry

Color Systems

Problems

Rheology of Food Products

Introduction

Stress and Deformation

Elastic Solids and Newtonian Fluids

Viscometric Functions

Rheological Classification of Fluid Foods

Newtonian Flow

Non-Newtonian Flow

Viscoelasticity

Effect of Temperature

Effect of Concentration on Viscosity

Mechanical Models

Rheological Measures in Semiliquid Foods

Problems

Proposed Problems

Electrical Properties of Foods

Introduction

Electric Resistance and Conductivity

Electric Energy

Alternating Current

Dielectric Proper

Physical and Chemical Properties of Food Powders

Introduction

Physical Properties

Chemical and Physicochemical Properties

Application of Compression in Foods

Research Update in Food Powder Properties

Heat Transfer by Conduction

Fundamental Equations in Heat Conduction

Heat Conduction under Steady Regime

Heat Conduction under Unsteady State

Problems

Proposed Problems

Heat Transfer by Convection

Introduction

Heat-Transfer Coefficients

Concentric Tube-Heat Exchangers

Shell and Tube-Heat Exchangers

Plate-Type Heat Exchangers

Extended Surface Heat Exchangers

Scraped-Surface Heat Exchangers

Agitated Vessels with Jacket and Coils

Heat Exchange Efficiency

Problems

Proposed Problems

Heat Transfer by Radiation

Introduction

Fundamental Laws

Physical Properties Associated with Radiation

View Factors

Exchange of Radiant Energy between Surfaces Separated by Nonabsorbing Media

Radiation Heat Transfer Coefficient

Simultaneous Heat Transfer by Convection and Radiation

Problems

Proposed Problems

Refrigeration

Introduction

Refrigerants

Refrigeration Mechanical Systems

Multipressure Systems

Gas Refrigeration Cycles

Food Chilling

Freezing

Thermal Properties of Frozen Foods

Freezing Time

Design of Freezing Systems

Problems

Proposed Problems

Thermal Processing of Foods

Introduction

Thermal Death Rate

Treatment of Canned Products

Thermal Treatment in Aseptic Processing

Problems

Proposed Problems

Emerging Technologies in Food Processing

Introduction

Ionizing Irradiation

Microwave and RF Heating

Infrared Heating

Ohmic Heating

High-Pressure Treatment

High-Intensity Pulsed Electric Fields Treatment

Problems

Concentration

Evaporation

Heat Transfer in Evaporators

Single Effect Evaporators

Use of Released Vapor

Multiple Effect Evaporators

Evaporation Equipment

Freeze Concentration

Freezing Temperature

Ice Crystal Formation Mechanisms

Freeze Concentration Equipment

Evaluation of Freeze Concentration Process Effectiveness

Problems

Dehydration

Introduction

Mixing of Two Air Streams

Mass and Heat Balances in Ideal Dryers

Dehydration Mechanisms

Chamber and Bed Dryers

Dehydration

Introduction

Mixing of Two Air Streams

Mass and Heat Balances in Ideal Dryers

Dehydration Mechanisms

Chamber and Bed Dryers

Freeze-Drying

Other Types of Drying

Problems

Hygienic Design of Food Processes

Introduction

Disinfection and Cleaning Kinetics

Disinfection and Cleaning Products

Disinfection and Cleaning Processes

Packaging of Foods

Introduction

Packaging Materials

Packaging Material Choice

Food Packaging and Modified Atmosphere

Mass Transfer through Packaging Materials

Appendix

References

Index

About the Series

Food Preservation Technology

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013060
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
TEC012000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Food Science