Introduction to Food Process Engineering  book cover
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1st Edition

Introduction to Food Process Engineering




ISBN 9781439809181
Published April 10, 2014 by CRC Press
722 Pages 256 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Consumer expectations are systematically growing, with demands for foods with a number of attributes, which are sometimes difficult for manufacturers to meet. The engineering processes that are needed to obtain top-quality foods are a major challenge due to the diversity of raw materials, intermediates, and final products. As in any other enterprise, the food industry must optimize each of the steps in the production chain to attain the best possible results. There is no question that a very important aspect to take into consideration when developing a process, designing a food factory, or modifying existing facilities is the in-depth knowledge of the basic engineering aspects involved in a given project.

Introduction to Food Process Engineering covers the fundamental principles necessary to study, understand, and analyze most unit operations in the food engineering domain. It was conceived with two clear objectives in mind: 1) to present all of the subjects in a systematic, coherent, and sequential fashion in order to provide an excellent knowledge base for a number of conventional and unconventional processes encountered in food industry processing lines, as well as novel processes at the research and development stages; 2) to be the best grounding possible for another CRC Press publication, Unit Operations in Food Engineering, Second Edition, by the same authors. These two books can be consulted independently, but at the same time, there is a significant and welcomed match between the two in terms of terminology, definitions, units, symbols, and nomenclature.

Highlights of the book include:

  • Dimensional analysis and similarities
  • Physicochemistry of food systems
  • Heat and mass transfer in food
  • Food rheology
  • Physical properties
  • Water activity
  • Thermal processing
  • Chilling and freezing
  • Evaporation
  • Dehydration
  • Extensive examples, problems, and solutions

Table of Contents

Introduction to Unit Operations
Process
Food Process Engineering
Transformation and Commercialization of Agricultural Products
Flowcharts and Description of Some Food Processes
Steady and Unsteady States
Discontinuous, Continuous, and Semicontinuous Operations
Unit Operations: Classification
Mathematical Setup of the Problems
Unit Systems, Dimensional Analysis, and Similarities
Magnitude and Unit Systems
Dimensional Analysis
Similarity Theory
Problems
Introduction to Transport Phenomena
Historical Introduction
Transport Phenomena
Circulation Regimes: Reynolds Experiment
Transport Phenomena Mechanisms
Momentum, Energy, and Mass Transfer
Introduction
Momentum Transfer: Newton’s Law of Viscosity
Energy Transfer: Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction
Mass Transfer: Fick’s Law of Diffusion
General Equation of Velocity
Macroscopic Balances
Introduction
Macroscopic Mass Balance
Macroscopic Energy Balance
Problems
Physicochemistry of Food Systems
Introduction
General Concepts
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
First Principle of Thermodynamics
Enthalpy
Heat Capacity
Second Principle of Thermodynamics: Entropy
Thermal Machines: Carnot’s Cycle
Third Principle of Thermodynamics
Chemical Thermodynamics
Helmholtz Free Energy
Gibbs Free Energy
Chemical Potential: Phase Equilibrium
Phase Diagram
Mass Transfer
Introduction
Mass Transfer by Diffusion
Mass Transfer by Convection
Unsteady Mass Transfer
Air–Water Interactions
Introduction
Properties of Humid Air
Mollier’s Psychrometric Diagram for Humid Air
Wet Bulb Temperature
Adiabatic Saturation of Air
Problems
Proposed Problems
Water Activity
Introduction
Definition of Water Activity
Methods to Measure Water Act
Prediction of Water Activity in Binary Solutions
Prediction of Water Activity in Multicomponent Solutions
Sorption Isotherms
Problems
Mechanical Properties
Density
Porosity
Size and Shape
Problems
Thermal Properties of Food
Thermal Conductivity
Specific Heat
Thermal Diffusivity
Problems
Optical Properties of Foods
Color
Characteristics of Color
Color Perception
Colorimetry
Color Systems
Problems
Rheology of Food Products
Introduction
Stress and Deformation
Elastic Solids and Newtonian Fluids
Viscometric Functions
Rheological Classification of Fluid Foods
Newtonian Flow
Non-Newtonian Flow
Viscoelasticity
Effect of Temperature
Effect of Concentration on Viscosity
Mechanical Models
Rheological Measures in Semiliquid Foods
Problems
Proposed Problems
Electrical Properties of Foods
Introduction
Electric Resistance and Conductivity
Electric Energy
Alternating Current
Dielectric Proper
Physical and Chemical Properties of Food Powders
Introduction
Physical Properties
Chemical and Physicochemical Properties
Application of Compression in Foods
Research Update in Food Powder Properties
Heat Transfer by Conduction
Fundamental Equations in Heat Conduction
Heat Conduction under Steady Regime
Heat Conduction under Unsteady State
Problems
Proposed Problems
Heat Transfer by Convection
Introduction
Heat-Transfer Coefficients
Concentric Tube-Heat Exchangers
Shell and Tube-Heat Exchangers
Plate-Type Heat Exchangers
Extended Surface Heat Exchangers
Scraped-Surface Heat Exchangers
Agitated Vessels with Jacket and Coils
Heat Exchange Efficiency
Problems
Proposed Problems
Heat Transfer by Radiation
Introduction
Fundamental Laws
Physical Properties Associated with Radiation
View Factors
Exchange of Radiant Energy between Surfaces Separated by Nonabsorbing Media
Radiation Heat Transfer Coefficient
Simultaneous Heat Transfer by Convection and Radiation
Problems
Proposed Problems
Refrigeration
Introduction
Refrigerants
Refrigeration Mechanical Systems
Multipressure Systems
Gas Refrigeration Cycles
Food Chilling
Freezing
Thermal Properties of Frozen Foods
Freezing Time
Design of Freezing Systems
Problems
Proposed Problems
Thermal Processing of Foods
Introduction
Thermal Death Rate
Treatment of Canned Products
Thermal Treatment in Aseptic Processing
Problems
Proposed Problems
Emerging Technologies in Food Processing
Introduction
Ionizing Irradiation
Microwave and RF Heating
Infrared Heating
Ohmic Heating
High-Pressure Treatment
High-Intensity Pulsed Electric Fields Treatment
Problems
Concentration
Evaporation
Heat Transfer in Evaporators
Single Effect Evaporators
Use of Released Vapor
Multiple Effect Evaporators
Evaporation Equipment
Freeze Concentration
Freezing Temperature
Ice Crystal Formation Mechanisms
Freeze Concentration Equipment
Evaluation of Freeze Concentration Process Effectiveness
Problems
Dehydration
Introduction
Mixing of Two Air Streams
Mass and Heat Balances in Ideal Dryers
Dehydration Mechanisms
Chamber and Bed Dryers
Dehydration
Introduction
Mixing of Two Air Streams
Mass and Heat Balances in Ideal Dryers
Dehydration Mechanisms
Chamber and Bed Dryers
Freeze-Drying
Other Types of Drying
Problems
Hygienic Design of Food Processes
Introduction
Disinfection and Cleaning Kinetics
Disinfection and Cleaning Products
Disinfection and Cleaning Processes
Packaging of Foods
Introduction
Packaging Materials
Packaging Material Choice
Food Packaging and Modified Atmosphere
Mass Transfer through Packaging Materials
Appendix
References
Index

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