Microbiological Examination Methods of Food and Water : A Laboratory Manual, 2nd Edition book cover
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Microbiological Examination Methods of Food and Water
A Laboratory Manual, 2nd Edition





ISBN 9781138057111
Published November 21, 2018 by CRC Press
526 Pages

 
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Book Description

Microbiological Examination Methods of Food and Water (2nd edition) is an illustrated laboratory manual that provides an overview of current standard microbiological culture methods for the examination of food and water, adhered to by renowned international organizations, such as ISO, AOAC, APHA, FDA and FSIS/USDA. It includes methods for the enumeration of indicator microorganisms of general contamination, indicators of hygiene and sanitary conditions, sporeforming, spoilage fungi and pathogenic bacteria.

Every chapter begins with a comprehensive, in-depth and updated bibliographic reference on the microorganism(s) dealt with in that particular section of the book. The latest facts on the taxonomic position of each group, genus or species are given, as well as clear guidelines on how to deal with changes in nomenclature on the internet. All chapters provide schematic comparisons between the methods presented, highlighting the main differences and similarities. This allows the user to choose the method that best meets his/her needs. Moreover, each chapter lists validated alternative quick methods, which, though not described in the book, may and can be used for the analysis of the microorganism(s) dealt with in that particular chapter. The didactic setup and the visualization of procedures in step-by-step schemes allow the user to quickly perceive and execute the procedure intended. Support material such as drawings, procedure schemes and laboratory sheets are available for downloading and customization.

This compendium will serve as an up-to-date practical companion for laboratory professionals, technicians and research scientists, instructors, teachers and food and water analysts. Alimentary engineering, chemistry, biotechnology and biology (under)graduate students specializing in food sciences will also find the book beneficial. It is furthermore suited for use as a practical/laboratory manual for graduate courses in Food Engineering and Food Microbiology.

Table of Contents

1 Sampling, transport and storage of samples for analysis
Revision history
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Collecting samples for analysis
1.3 Transportation and storage of samples until analysis
1.4 References

2 Preparation of samples for analysis
Revision history
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Homogenization of samples and withdrawal of the analytical unit
2.3 Preparation of the first dilution of the analytical unit
2.4 Serial decimal dilution of the sample
2.5 References
Annex 2.1 – Procedures for homogenizing the content and withdrawal of the analytical unit of different types of foods
Annex 2.2 – Special cases in which there are variations in the analytical unit and/or dilution and/or diluents recommended for the preparation of the first dilution of samples of different types of foods

3 Basic plate count techniques for enumeration of microorganisms
Revision history
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Pour plate technique
3.3 Spread plate technique
3.4 Drop plate technique
3.5 Membrane filtration
3.6 Counting colonies and calculating results according to APHA
3.7 (revised) Counting colonies and calculating results according to ISO 7218:2007/ Amd .1:2013
3.8 References
Annex 3.1 – (new) Limits of agreement for sums of colony counts of two parallel Petri dishes or colony counts from one Petri dish per dilution step over two 10-fold dilution steps (with a probability of 99% per comparison) (ISO 14461-2:2005)
Annex 3.2 – (new) Limits of agreement for colony counts of two parallel Petri dishes (with a probability of 99% per comparison) (ISO 14461-2:2005)

4 Basic techniques for microbial enumeration by the most probable number (MPN) method
Revision history
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Multiple dilution test
4.3 Single dilution test
4.4 Calculation of the results
4.5 References
Annex 4.1 – MPN tables

5 Basic techniques for the detection of the presence/absence of microorganisms
Revision history
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Material required for the analyses
5.3 Procedure
5.4 References

6 Aerobic plate count
Revision history
6.1 Introduction
6.2 ( revised ) Plate count method APHA 8:2015 for aerobic mesophilic bacteria in foods and water
6.3 ( revised ) Petrifilm ™ AOAC official methods for aerobic mesophilic bacteria in foods
6.4 ( revised ) Plate count method APHA 13.61:2015 for aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria in foods
6.5 ( new ) Plate count methods ISO 4833-1:2013 and ISO 4833-2:2013/Corr.1:2014 for aerobic mesophilic bacteria in foods
6.6 (new) Plate count method BAM/FDA:2001 for aerobic mesophilic bacteria in foods
6.7 References

7 Yeasts and molds
Revision history
7.1 Introduction
7.2.A Plate count method APHA 21:2015 for yeasts and molds in foods
7.3 (revised) Plate count method APHA 13:2015 for psychrotrophic fungi in foods
7.4 ( revised ) Plate count method APHA 22.4:2015 for heat-resistant molds in foods
7.5 Pitt and Hocking (2009) methods for preservative-resistant yeasts in foods
7.6 ( revised ) Membrane filtration or plate count methods APHA 17.3:2015 for osmophilic yeasts in foods
7.7 ( new ) Direct plating method Hocking et al . (2006) for percentage of fungal infection in particulate foods
7.8 References

8 Enterobacteriaceae
Revision history
8.1 Introduction
8.2 (revised) Plate count method APHA 9.62:2015 for Enterobacteriaceae in foods
8.3 ( revised ) Presence / absence (P/A) or most probable number ( MPN) method APHA 9.61:2015 for Enterobacteriaceae in foods
8.4 ( revised ) AOAC official method 2003.1 (Petrifilm ™ ) for Enterobacteriaceae in selected foods
8.5 (new) Plate count method ISO 21528-2:2017 for Enterobacteriaceae in foods
8.6 ( new ) Presence / absence (P/A) or most probable number ( MPN) method ISO 21528-1:2017 for Enterobacteriaceae in foods
8.7 References

9 Total and thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli
Revision history
9.1 Introduction
9.2 (revised) Most probable number (MPN) method APHA 9:2015 for total/thermotolerant coliforms and E. coli in foods
9.3 Most probable number (MPN) methods ISO 4831:2006 and ISO 7251:2005 for total coliforms and presumptive E. coli in foods
9.4 (revised) Most probable number (MPN) method APHA/AWWA/WEF:2012 for total and thermotolerant coliforms and E. coli in water
9.5 ( new ) Most probable number (MPN) method BAM/FDA:2017 for total/thermotolerant coliforms and E. coli in foods
9.6 (revised) Plate count method APHA:2015 for total coliforms in foods
9.7 (new) Membrane filtration method ISO 9308-1:2014/Amd.1:2016 for total coliforms and E. coli in water
9.8 References 134

10 Staphylococcus aureus
Revision history
10.1 Introduction
10.2 ( revised ) Plate count method APHA 39.63:2015 for coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus in foods
10.3 ( revised ) Most probable number (MPN) method APHA39.62:2015 for coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus in foods
10.4 ( revised) Presence/absence method APHA 39.61:2015 for coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus in foods
10.5 References

11 Bacillus cereus
Revision history
11.1 Introduction
11.2 (revised) Plate count method APHA 31.61:2015 for Bacillus cereus in foods
11.3 (revised) Most probable number (MPN) method APHA 31.62:2015 for Bacillus cereus in foods
11.4 References

12 Clostridium perfringens
Revision history
12.1 Introduction
12.2 (revised) Plate count method APHA 33.72:2015 for Clostridium perfringens in foods
12.3 (revised) Presence/absence method APHA 33.71:2015 for Clostridium perfringens in foods
12.4 (new) Plate count method BAM/FDA:2001 for Clostridium perfringens in foods
12.5 (new) Plate count method ISO 7937:2004 for Clostridium perfringens in foods
12.6 (new) Membrane filtration method ISO 14189:2013 for Clostridium perfringens in water
12.7 References

13 Enterococci
Revision history
13.1 Introduction
13.2 (revised) Plate count method APHA 10.5:2015 for enterococci and fecal streptococci in foods
13.3 (revised) Most probable number ( MPN ) method APHA 10.2:2015 for enterococci and fecal streptococci in foods
13.4 (revised) Membrane filtration method APHA/AWWA/WEF 9230C.3c:2012 for enterococci and fecal streptococci in water
13.5 Membrane filtration method ISO 7899-2:2000 for intestinal enterococci in water
13.6 References

14 Lactic acid bacteria
Revision history
14.1 Introduction
14.2 (revised) Plate count method APHA 19.52:2015 for lactic acid bacteria in foods
14.3 (revised) MPN methods APHA 19.526:2015 and APHA 19.524:2015 for lactic acid bacteria in foods
14.4 (new) Plate count method ISO 15214:1998 for lactic acid bacteria in foods
14.5 References

15 Campylobacter
Revision history
15.1 Introduction
15.2 (revised) Presence/absence method ISO 10272-1:2017 for thermotolerant Campylobacter in foods
15.3 (new) Plate count method ISO 10272-2:2017 for thermotolerant Campylobacter in foods
15.4 References

16 Cronobacter
Revision history
16.1 Introduction
16.2 (revised) Presence/absence method ISO 22964:2017 for Cronobacter in foods
16.3 (new) Presence/absence method BAM/FDA:2012 for Cronobacter in dehydrated powdered infant formula
16.4 References

17 Pseudomonas
Revision history
17.1 Introduction
17.2 (revised) MPN method APHA/AWWA/WEF 9213:2012 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water
17.3 Membrane filtration method ISO 16266:2006 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water
17.4 Plate count method ISO 13720:2010 for presumptive Pseudomonas spp. in meat and meat products
17.5 Plate count method ISO 11059:2009 for Pseudomonas spp. in milk and milk products
17.6 References

18 Listeria monocytogenes
Revision history
18.1 Introduction
18.2 ( revised) Presence/absence or MPN method BAM/FDA:2017 for Listeria monocytogenes in foods
18.3 (revised) Presence/absence method USDA/MLG:2017 for Listeria monocytogenes in foods
18.4 (revised) Plate count method ISO 11290-2:2017 for Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in foods
18.5 ( revised ) Presence/absence method ISO 11290-1:2017 for Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in foods
18.6 References

19 Salmonella
Revision history
19.1 Introduction
19.2 ( revised ) Presence/absence method ISO 6579-1:2017 for Salmonella in foods
19.3 ( revised ) Presence/absence method BAM/FDA:2018 for Salmonella in foods
19.4 ( revised ) Presence/absence method MLG/USDA:2017 for Salmonella in foods
19.5 References

20 Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Revision history
20.1 Introduction
20.2.A Presence/absence method BAM/FDA:2004 for Vibrio cholerae in foods
20.3.A MPN method BAM/FDA:2004 for Vibrio parahaemolyticus in foods
20.4 (revised) Presence/absence method ISO 21872-1:2017 for potentially enteropathogenic Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in foods
20.5 References

21 Yersinia enterocolitica
Revision history
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Presence/absence method ISO 10273:2017 for pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in foods
21.3 References

22 Bacterial spore count
Revision history
22.1 Introduction 333
22.2 ( revised ) Methods APHA 25:2015 and 26:2015 for spores of total and flat-sour thermophilic aerobic sporeformers in foods
22.3 ( revised ) Methods APHA 27:2015 for spores of thermophilic anaerobic sporeformers in foods
22.4 ( revised ) Methods APHA 28:2015 for spores of sulfide spoilage anaerobic sporeformers in foods
22.5 ( revised ) Methods APHA 23:2015 for spores of mesophilic aerobic sporeformers in foods
22.6 ( revised ) Methods APHA 24:2015 for spores of mesophilic anaerobic sporeformers in foods
22.7 Methods IFU 12:2007 for Alicyclobacillus in foods
22.8 References

23 Commercial sterility
Revision history
23.1 Introduction
23.2 ( revised ) Method APHA:2015 for commercial sterility or cause of spoilage of low-acid canned foods
23.3 ( revised ) Method APHA:2015 for commercial sterility for cause of spoilage of acid canned foods
23.4 References

24 Guidelines on preparation of culture media
Revision history
24.1 Introduction 399
24.2 Procedure for preparation of culture media
24.3 References

Annex 1. Preparation of media and reagents
Annex 2. Sampling plans and microbiological limits recommended by ICMSF for foods

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Author(s)

Biography

Neusely da Silva is a scientific researcher at the Food Technology Institute (ITAL), a government research agency of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. She graduated in Food Engineering and has a PhD in Food Science from the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Brazil). Director of the Microbiology Reference Laboratory of the Food Technology Institute from 1995 to 2007, she was responsible for the accreditation of the laboratory assays according to ISO 17025. She is author of over 70 publications in the area of Food Microbiology and her major research areas are bacterial physiology and methods for detection of bacteria responsible for food-borne diseases and bacteria responsible for food spoilage.

Marta Hiromi Taniwaki, PhD, is a scientific researcher at the Food Technology Institute (ITAL) at the Center of Quality and Food Science in Campinas, Brazil. She graduated in Biology and has a PhD in Food Science and Technology from the University of New South Wales, Australia She is author of over 100 publications in the area of Food Mycology, Mycotoxins and Food Microbiology. She is member of the International Commission on Food Mycology (ICFM) since 1997; member of the Brazilian delegation at the Codex Contaminants in Food (CCCF) since 2006; Member of the International Commission on Microbiologi¬cal Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) since 2010 and editorial board of Myco¬toxin Research since 2012. Her major research areas are: fungi and mycotoxins in foods; biodiversity of toxigenic fungi in foods, fungal physiology and mycotoxin production, polyphasic approach to biosystematics of Aspergillus species.

Valéria Christina Amstalden Junqueira was a scientific researcher at the Food Technology Institute (ITAL) at the Center of Quality and Food Science (CCQA) in Campinas, SP, Brazil from 1988 to 2016 and Director of the Microbiology Reference Laboratory at ITAL from 2011 to 2015. She graduated in Biology and has PhD in Food Technology from the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Brazil) in the area of hygiene and legislation of foods. She has been a member of the Brazilian delegation at the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) since 2002. Her major research activities are on the control of the microbiological quality of food with an emphasis on anaerobic bacteria, spoilage microorganisms of processed foods, microbiological quality of water and non-alcoholic beverages.

Neliane Ferraz de Arruda Silveira is a scientific researcher at the Food Technology Institute (ITAL) at the Center of Quality and Food Science in Campinas, Brazil. She is a biologist with PhD in Food Technology from the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Brazil), in the area of hygiene and legislation of foods. Her major research areas are the control of microbiological quality of food with emphasis on fish and fish products, minimally processed vegetables, foods served in collective meals, meat products and bacteriological quality of drinking water.

Margarete Midori Okazaki is a scientific researcher at the Food Technology Institute (ITAL), at the Center of Quality and Food Science in Campinas, Brazil. She graduated in Food Engineering and has a Master Science degree (Msc.) in Food Technology from the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Brazil). She is vice director of the Microbiology Reference Laboratory of the Food Technology Institute and concentrates her activities on the control of the microbiological quality of food and water and on technical training focused on microbiological examination methods.

Renato Abeilar Romeiro Gomes is a scientific researcher at the Food Technology Institute (ITAL), Campinas, Brazil. He graduated in Agricultural Engineer and has a Master’s degree in Agricultural Engineering from the Federal University of Viçosa, with MBA specialization. He is currently a researcher at the Dairy Technology Center of the Food Technology Institute.

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