Plant Sanitation for Food Processing and Food Service: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Plant Sanitation for Food Processing and Food Service

2nd Edition

By Y. H. Hui

CRC Press

1,386 pages | 60 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2014-12-16
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Description

Comprehensive and accessible, this book presents fundamental principles and applications that are essential for food production and food service safety. It provides basic, practical information on the daily operations in a food processing plant and reviews some of the industry's most recent developments. Formerly titled Food Plant Sanitation, this second edition discusses nine additional food processing industries and contains 14 new chapters. Among others, new topics include sanitation in food transportation and sanitation of fresh produce in retail establishments.

Table of Contents

BACKGROUND, LAWS, AND REGULATIONS

Using This Book

Introduction

Food Industry Classifications

Food Plant Sanitation: An Overview

Laws, Regulations, and Enforcement

Sanitation and Safety: Principles and Applications

Food Commodities Manufacturing

Premises

Language Format

Terms and Jargons

Prerequisites

Author’s Perspectives

U.S. Food Laws and Regulations: An Overview

Introduction

Food and Drug Administration

U.S. Department of Agriculture

National Marine Fishery Service

Environmental Protection Agency

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Tax and Trade Bureau

State and Local Governments

Enforcement and Food Plant Sanitation

Background

Data on Insanitary Practices

Recalls

Warning Letters

Enforcement Examples

FOOD HAZARDS, DEFECTS, CONTAMINANTS, SECURITY, AND IRRADIATION

Primer on Food Hazards and Foodborne Diseases

Introduction

Hazards: An Overview

Foodborne Illness: An Overview

Foodborne Disease Classified by Symptoms

Biological Hazards in Food

Food Microbiology

Foodborne Pathogens

Biological Agents, Foodborne Diseases, and Clinical Profile

Chemical Hazards in Food

Introduction

Added versus Natural Toxic Substances

Use of Toxic or Poisonous Substances in Food Establishments

Diseases and Symptoms

Unintentional Chemical Contaminants in Food

Intentional Chemical Contaminants in Food

Natural Toxicants

Physical Hazards in Food

Foreign Objects: Classification

Hazardous Foreign Objects

Nonhazardous Foreign Objects

Food Tampering with a Foreign Object

Regulatory Guidance

Metal Fragments

Control of Metal Inclusion

Determine the Significance of Potential Hazard from Metal Inclusion

Identify Critical Control Points

Develop a Control Strategy for Metal Fragments

Control Strategy Example 1

Control Strategy Example 2

Glass Fragments in Juice

Foreign Physical Materials in Meat and Poultry

Food Hazards: Food Filth and Extraneous Matter, Deleterious Contaminants, and Food Security

Introduction

Food Filth and Extraneous Matter

Food Defects

Deleterious or Poisonous Contaminants in Human Food and Feed

Food Security

Example: Defects in Fresh Produce

Sanitation and Regulatory System

Food Irradiation: Regulatory Requirements

Food and Drug Administration Regulations

Radiation and Radiation Sources

Packaging Materials for Irradiated Foods

Food Safety and Inspection Service

GMP and Food Plant Sanitation

Introduction

FDA Sanitation Requirements

Food Safety Problems and Definitions

Tables

Sanitation: Establishment Grounds and Facilities

FDA versus FSIS

Grounds and Pest Management

Establishment Construction

Pest Control

Personnel and Equipment Sanitation

Personnel

Cleanliness

Clothing

Disease Control

Supervision, Education, and Training

Equipment and Utensils

Equipment and Utensils: Food Preparation and Food Service

Sanitation Operations, Facilities, and Controls

Introduction

Part A: Sanitary Operations

Part B: Sanitary Facilities and Controls

Processes, Storage, and Transport in a Food Establishment

Introduction

Raw Materials and Other Ingredients

Manufacturing Operations

Establishment’s Responsibilities

Compliance Verification

FDA Guidance

FSIS Scenarios

Storage, Warehousing, and Transports

Violations

Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures

Introduction

Objectives

Sanitation Controls and SSOP

Development of SSOPS

Monitoring of SSOP

Maintenance of SSOP

SSOP Corrective Actions

SSOP Recordkeeping

HACCP Systems

Background Information

Principles and Applications

Pathogen Reduction

FSIS HACCP Plan for Beef Slaughter Process

Cleaning, Sanitizing, and Pest Management

Cleaning and Sanitizing a Food Plant

Introduction

General Considerations in Sanitation and Cleaning

Fundamentals of Cleaning

Cleaning Methods

Sanitizing

Seven Steps of Dry Cleaning of Food Equipment

Seven Steps of Wet Cleaning Food Equipment

Pests Control in a Food Plant

Introduction

Insect Control

Rodent Control

Safety in Handling Pesticides

Food Processing Establishments

FDA Food Establishment Inspection

Introduction

Food Establishment Files

Preparation, References, and Records

Personnel

Plants and Grounds

Raw Materials

Equipment and Utensils

Manufacturing Process

Sanitation

Distribution

Federal, State, and Local Inspection

Food Standards

Pesticides

Sanitation of Food Processing Equipment

General Considerations

Materials for Construction and Repair

Design and Construction

Cleanability

Water Usage

Specialized Equipment

Equipment Location and Installation

Maintenance and Operation

Cleaning of Equipment and Utensils

Sanitization of Equipment and Utensils

Some Suggestions for Difficult-to-Clean Equipment

Seven Steps of Dry Cleaning and Seven Steps of Wet Cleaning

Protection of Clean Items

Example: Sanitation and Commercial Deli Slicers

Conclusion

Food Allergens

Introduction

Allergens and Food Labeling

Compliance Policy Guide

Guidance on Inspections of Firms Producing Food Products Susceptible to Contamination with Allergenic Ingredients

FSIS: Allergens, Meat, and Poultry

Allergens Risks Management System

Allergens Hazard and Processing Fish and Fishery Products

Nut Allergy, Anaphylaxis, and Deaths

Bakery Products: Sanitation and Safety

Sanitation System

Standards for Bakery Products in the United States

Biological Hazards: Time–Temperature Control

Bakery Establishment and Sanitation

Establishment Inspections for Bakery Products, Doughs, and Bakery Mixes

Custard and Cream Fillings for Pastry

Sanitation and Safety of Manufacturing: Soft Drinks, Bottled Water, and Ice

Introduction

Food Sanitation System

HACCP

Bottled Water

Soda Beverages

FDA Inspection for Soft Drinks Establishments

FDA Inspection for Bottled Water Establishments

Ice Manufacturing

FDA Inspection Form

Regulatory Requirements for the Production of Distilled Spirits in the United States

Introduction

Laws and Regulations

Coloring/Flavoring/Blending Materials

What a Distilled Spirits Label Tells You

Cheese Processing Plants: Safety and Inspection

Introduction

Sanitation System

Establishment Processing Cheese

Establishment Processing Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products

FDA Inspection

Sanitation and Safety in the Manufacture of Confectionery

Background Introduction

HACCP

Operations and Preventive Practices

FDA Standards of Identities

Candy without Chocolate, Candy Specialties, and Chewing Gum: Establishment Inspection

Chocolate and Cocoa Products Establishment Inspection

Alcohol

Lead

FDA Compliance Policies for Some Confectionery or Related Products

Sanitation and Safety in the Manufacture of Condiments

Product Descriptions

Sanitation System

HACCP

Identity and Definitions

FDA Regulatory Action Guidance for Selected Condiments

FDA Analytical Methods

Establishment Inspection

Guide to Inspections of Dairy Product Plants

Sanitation System

Dairy Processing Plants

Establishment Inspection

Sanitation and Safety of Eggs and Egg Products

Introduction

Food Safety Rule

FDA Refrigeration and Retail Shell Eggs Distribution

FDA Eggs Processing Establishment Inspection

FDA CPG: Eggs and Egg Products Frozen Adulteration Involving Decomposition

SE Outbreak in Shell Eggs

FDA 483 Inspection

Sanitation Requirements for Frozen Food Establishments

Introduction

Food Sanitation System

Temperatures

General Plant Requirements

Plant Layout

Plant Construction

Lighting; Ventilation

Frozen Food Processing Equipment Categories

Frozen Food Processing Equipment For Manufacture

Operating Practices

Transportation

Warehousing

Retail

Packaged Ice

Preordered Frozen Foods

Precooked Foods and Establishment Inspection

Glossary

Inspection Checklist for Frozen Food Lockers

Sanitation and Safety in the Manufacture of Frozen Desserts

FDA Product Standards

Sanitation System

Frozen Dessert Processing Plants

Incoming Materials

Operational Considerations

Plant Systems

Risks Analysis for Selected Special Operations

Criteria in an Inspection Form

Grains and Grain Products Processing: Sanitation and Inspection

Introduction

Sanitation System

USDA Federal Grain Inspection Service

Grain Processing

Elevators

Flour Milling

Cereal Flours and Products

Pasta

Establishment Inspection and Safety Control Measures for Processing Nuts

Introduction

Sanitation System

FDA: Standards, Guidance Documents, and CPG

FDA Establishment Inspections for Tree Nuts

Peanuts and Peanut Butter

Peanuts: Establishment Inspection

FDA CPG Affecting Nuts and Related Matters

FDA Recommendation: Salmonella and Products with Peanut- or Pistachio-Derived Ingredients

Peanut Butter Disease Outbreaks: A Case Study

HACCP for Seafood Processing

Background Information

FDA HACCP for Seafood

NOAA Voluntary Inspection Programs

Sanitation of Individual Seafood

Sanitation and Safety for the Manufacture of Preserves, Syrup, Honey, and Related Products

Sanitation System

FDA Preserves and Related Products

Honey

Syrup

USDA Standards and Grades

Fresh Produce and Processed Fruits and Vegetables

Produce Sanitation and Safety

Background Information

FDA Guidance for Fresh Produce

Fresh-Cut Produce

Guide to Produce Farm Investigations

Guide to Traceback of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Implicated in Epidemiological Investigations

Tomatoes: Safety Practices for Vegetable Commodities

Tomatoes: Open-Field Production

Sanitation and Safety of Processing Fruits and Fruit Juices

Introduction

Product Standards and Grades

Time/Temperature Factors

FDA’s Fruit Juice HACCP

FDA Establishment Inspections

Sanitation and Safety in the Manufacture of Pickles and Sauerkraut

Sanitation Premises

Acidified Foods

Pickles Manufacture

Pickles and Relish: FDA Analytical Methods

Pickles: FDA Establishment Inspection

Canned Sauerkraut

USDA: Sauerkraut Inspection

Warning Letter

Sanitation and Safety of Processing Vegetables

Food Sanitation System

HACCP

Product Standards and Grades

Time–Temperature Factors

Tomatoes and Tomato Products

Olives

Food Defect Action Levels for Vegetables and Vegetable Products

Meat and Poultry Sanitation

Regulatory Requirements in the Processing of Meat and Poultry in the United States

Introduction

Current Laws, Regulations, and Jurisdiction

Sanitation Standards

HACCP Systems

Hazards

Slaughter

Raw Product, Not Ground

Mechanically Separated Product

Raw Product: Ground

Heat Treated but Not Fully Cooked: Not Shelf Stable

Fully Cooked: Not Shelf Stable

Product with Secondary Inhibitors: Not Shelf Stable

Not Heat Treated: Shelf Stable

Heat Treated: Shelf Stable

Thermally Processed: Commercially Sterile

Application

HACCP Model for Processing Ground Meat

Hazard Analysis of the Raw Ground Process

Intervention Treatments for Meat Parts and Comminuted Meat

Guidance for Minimizing Impact associated with Food Safety Hazard in Raw Ground Meat

HACCP Model for Processing Raw Poultry

Introduction

Generic Model for Poultry Slaughter

Generic HACCP Model for Irradiated, Raw Meat and Poultry Products

Food Transportation and Warehousing

Food Transportation: Sanitation, Safety, and Security

Background Information

Problems and Preventive Controls

Food Safety and Security Concerns

Guidance for Food Safety Measures

Guidance for Food Security Measures

Guidance for Specific Modes of Transportation

Establishment, Maintenance, and Availability of Records

Warehousing Sanitation and Safety

Introduction

Basic Requirements for Sanitation in a Food Processing Plant

Procedures and Controls

Personnel

Implementation Plan

Check Points and Additional Guides

Case Study: Inspecting Incoming Food Materials and RawIngredients

FDA CPG: Food Storage and Warehousing-Adulteration-Filth

FSIS-USDA: Food Security in a Warehouse

FDA Warning Letters for Deficiencies in Food Storage Warehouses

An FDA Inspection Report Form

Food Service

Primer on Sanitation and Safety in the Food Service Industries

Retail and Food Service Industries

Guides to Regulators and Operators

Retail and Food Service Industries: HACCP

Food Safety Plan and HACCP

Hazard Analysis

Determining Risk Factors in Process Flows

Developing a Food Safety System

Procedural Step 1: Develop Prerequisite Programs

Procedural Step 2: Group Your Menu Items/Products

Procedural Step 3: Conduct a Hazard Analysis

Procedural Step 4: Implement Control Measures in Prerequisite Programsor at CCPS in Your HACCP Plans and Establish Critical Limits

Common Operational Steps Used in Retail and Food Service

Procedural Step 5: Establish Monitoring Procedures

Procedural Step 6: Develop Corrective Actions

Procedural Step 7: Conduct Ongoing Verification

Procedural Step 8: Keep Records

Procedural Step 9: Conduct Periodic Validation

Conclusion

Sample HACCP Tables

Sanitation and Safety Requirements for Restaurants

Introduction

Food Care

Food Service Personnel

Equipment and Utensils

Cleaning, Sanitization, and Storage of Equipment, Utensils,and Cleaning Gear

Sanitary Facilities and Controls

Construction and Maintenance of Physical Facilities

Special Food Service Sanitation

Sanitation and Safety Requirements for Retail Food Service Industries

Introduction

Food Management

Personnel

Equipment and Utensils

Equipment and Utensils: Cleaning, Sanitization, and Storage

Sanitary Facilities and Controls

Physical Facilities: Construction and Maintenance

Reminder

Sanitation and Food Safety for Public Conveyances (Land, Air, Sea) in theUnited States

FDA Regulations and Conveyance Sanitation

CDC and Food Safety in Cruise Ship

Personnel

Food

Equipment and Utensils

Warewashing

Poisonous and Toxic Materials

Facilities

Food Workers Safety

Food Establishment Classification and Occupational Hazards

Introduction

Food Establishment Classification

Manufacturing Plants and Workers’ Hazard Analysis

eTool for the Safety of Workers in Processing Poultry

Introduction

Contents of eTool for Poultry Processing Industry

Example of Processing: Cutting and Deboning

Description for Processing: Cutting and Deboning

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC012000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Food Science