2nd Edition

Plant Sanitation for Food Processing and Food Service

By Y. H. Hui Copyright 2014
    1392 Pages 60 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Comprehensive and accessible, this book presents fundamental principles and applications that are essential for food production and food service safety. It provides basic, practical information on the daily operations in a food processing plant and reviews some of the industry's most recent developments. Formerly titled Food Plant Sanitation, this second edition discusses nine additional food processing industries and contains 14 new chapters. Among others, new topics include sanitation in food transportation and sanitation of fresh produce in retail establishments.


    Using This Book
    Food Industry Classifications
    Food Plant Sanitation: An Overview
    Laws, Regulations, and Enforcement
    Sanitation and Safety: Principles and Applications
    Food Commodities Manufacturing
    Language Format
    Terms and Jargons
    Author’s Perspectives

    U.S. Food Laws and Regulations: An Overview
    Food and Drug Administration
    U.S. Department of Agriculture
    National Marine Fishery Service
    Environmental Protection Agency
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    Tax and Trade Bureau
    State and Local Governments

    Enforcement and Food Plant Sanitation
    Data on Insanitary Practices
    Warning Letters
    Enforcement Examples

    Primer on Food Hazards and Foodborne Diseases
    Hazards: An Overview
    Foodborne Illness: An Overview
    Foodborne Disease Classified by Symptoms

    Biological Hazards in Food
    Food Microbiology
    Foodborne Pathogens
    Biological Agents, Foodborne Diseases, and Clinical Profile

    Chemical Hazards in Food
    Added versus Natural Toxic Substances
    Use of Toxic or Poisonous Substances in Food Establishments
    Diseases and Symptoms
    Unintentional Chemical Contaminants in Food
    Intentional Chemical Contaminants in Food
    Natural Toxicants

    Physical Hazards in Food
    Foreign Objects: Classification
    Hazardous Foreign Objects
    Nonhazardous Foreign Objects
    Food Tampering with a Foreign Object
    Regulatory Guidance
    Metal Fragments
    Control of Metal Inclusion
    Determine the Significance of Potential Hazard from Metal Inclusion
    Identify Critical Control Points
    Develop a Control Strategy for Metal Fragments
    Control Strategy Example 1
    Control Strategy Example 2
    Glass Fragments in Juice
    Foreign Physical Materials in Meat and Poultry

    Food Hazards: Food Filth and Extraneous Matter, Deleterious Contaminants, and Food Security
    Food Filth and Extraneous Matter
    Food Defects
    Deleterious or Poisonous Contaminants in Human Food and Feed
    Food Security
    Example: Defects in Fresh Produce

    Sanitation and Regulatory System
    Food Irradiation: Regulatory Requirements
    Food and Drug Administration Regulations
    Radiation and Radiation Sources
    Packaging Materials for Irradiated Foods
    Food Safety and Inspection Service

    GMP and Food Plant Sanitation
    FDA Sanitation Requirements
    Food Safety Problems and Definitions

    Sanitation: Establishment Grounds and Facilities
    FDA versus FSIS
    Grounds and Pest Management
    Establishment Construction
    Pest Control

    Personnel and Equipment Sanitation
    Disease Control
    Supervision, Education, and Training
    Equipment and Utensils
    Equipment and Utensils: Food Preparation and Food Service

    Sanitation Operations, Facilities, and Controls
    Part A: Sanitary Operations
    Part B: Sanitary Facilities and Controls

    Processes, Storage, and Transport in a Food Establishment
    Raw Materials and Other Ingredients
    Manufacturing Operations
    Establishment’s Responsibilities
    Compliance Verification
    FDA Guidance
    FSIS Scenarios
    Storage, Warehousing, and Transports

    Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures
    Sanitation Controls and SSOP
    Development of SSOPS
    Monitoring of SSOP
    Maintenance of SSOP
    SSOP Corrective Actions
    SSOP Recordkeeping

    HACCP Systems
    Background Information
    Principles and Applications
    Pathogen Reduction
    FSIS HACCP Plan for Beef Slaughter Process

    Cleaning, Sanitizing, and Pest Management
    Cleaning and Sanitizing a Food Plant
    General Considerations in Sanitation and Cleaning
    Fundamentals of Cleaning
    Cleaning Methods
    Seven Steps of Dry Cleaning of Food Equipment
    Seven Steps of Wet Cleaning Food Equipment

    Pests Control in a Food Plant
    Insect Control
    Rodent Control
    Safety in Handling Pesticides

    Food Processing Establishments
    FDA Food Establishment Inspection
    Food Establishment Files
    Preparation, References, and Records
    Plants and Grounds
    Raw Materials
    Equipment and Utensils
    Manufacturing Process
    Federal, State, and Local Inspection
    Food Standards

    Sanitation of Food Processing Equipment
    General Considerations
    Materials for Construction and Repair
    Design and Construction
    Water Usage
    Specialized Equipment
    Equipment Location and Installation
    Maintenance and Operation
    Cleaning of Equipment and Utensils
    Sanitization of Equipment and Utensils
    Some Suggestions for Difficult-to-Clean Equipment
    Seven Steps of Dry Cleaning and Seven Steps of Wet Cleaning
    Protection of Clean Items
    Example: Sanitation and Commercial Deli Slicers

    Food Allergens
    Allergens and Food Labeling
    Compliance Policy Guide
    Guidance on Inspections of Firms Producing Food Products Susceptible to Contamination with Allergenic Ingredients
    FSIS: Allergens, Meat, and Poultry
    Allergens Risks Management System
    Allergens Hazard and Processing Fish and Fishery Products
    Nut Allergy, Anaphylaxis, and Deaths

    Bakery Products: Sanitation and Safety
    Sanitation System
    Standards for Bakery Products in the United States
    Biological Hazards: Time–Temperature Control
    Bakery Establishment and Sanitation
    Establishment Inspections for Bakery Products, Doughs, and Bakery Mixes
    Custard and Cream Fillings for Pastry

    Sanitation and Safety of Manufacturing: Soft Drinks, Bottled Water, and Ice
    Food Sanitation System
    Bottled Water
    Soda Beverages
    FDA Inspection for Soft Drinks Establishments
    FDA Inspection for Bottled Water Establishments
    Ice Manufacturing
    FDA Inspection Form

    Regulatory Requirements for the Production of Distilled Spirits in the United States
    Laws and Regulations
    Coloring/Flavoring/Blending Materials
    What a Distilled Spirits Label Tells You

    Cheese Processing Plants: Safety and Inspection
    Sanitation System
    Establishment Processing Cheese
    Establishment Processing Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products
    FDA Inspection

    Sanitation and Safety in the Manufacture of Confectionery
    Background Introduction
    Operations and Preventive Practices
    FDA Standards of Identities
    Candy without Chocolate, Candy Specialties, and Chewing Gum: Establishment Inspection
    Chocolate and Cocoa Products Establishment Inspection
    FDA Compliance Policies for Some Confectionery or Related Products

    Sanitation and Safety in the Manufacture of Condiments
    Product Descriptions
    Sanitation System
    Identity and Definitions
    FDA Regulatory Action Guidance for Selected Condiments
    FDA Analytical Methods
    Establishment Inspection

    Guide to Inspections of Dairy Product Plants
    Sanitation System
    Dairy Processing Plants
    Establishment Inspection

    Sanitation and Safety of Eggs and Egg Products
    Food Safety Rule
    FDA Refrigeration and Retail Shell Eggs Distribution
    FDA Eggs Processing Establishment Inspection
    FDA CPG: Eggs and Egg Products Frozen Adulteration Involving Decomposition
    SE Outbreak in Shell Eggs
    FDA 483 Inspection

    Sanitation Requirements for Frozen Food Establishments
    Food Sanitation System
    General Plant Requirements
    Plant Layout
    Plant Construction
    Lighting; Ventilation
    Frozen Food Processing Equipment Categories
    Frozen Food Processing Equipment For Manufacture
    Operating Practices
    Packaged Ice
    Preordered Frozen Foods
    Precooked Foods and Establishment Inspection
    Inspection Checklist for Frozen Food Lockers

    Sanitation and Safety in the Manufacture of Frozen Desserts
    FDA Product Standards
    Sanitation System
    Frozen Dessert Processing Plants
    Incoming Materials
    Operational Considerations
    Plant Systems
    Risks Analysis for Selected Special Operations
    Criteria in an Inspection Form

    Grains and Grain Products Processing: Sanitation and Inspection
    Sanitation System
    USDA Federal Grain Inspection Service
    Grain Processing
    Flour Milling
    Cereal Flours and Products

    Establishment Inspection and Safety Control Measures for Processing Nuts
    Sanitation System
    FDA: Standards, Guidance Documents, and CPG
    FDA Establishment Inspections for Tree Nuts
    Peanuts and Peanut Butter
    Peanuts: Establishment Inspection
    FDA CPG Affecting Nuts and Related Matters
    FDA Recommendation: Salmonella and Products with Peanut- or Pistachio-Derived Ingredients
    Peanut Butter Disease Outbreaks: A Case Study

    HACCP for Seafood Processing
    Background Information
    FDA HACCP for Seafood
    NOAA Voluntary Inspection Programs
    Sanitation of Individual Seafood

    Sanitation and Safety for the Manufacture of Preserves, Syrup, Honey, and Related Products
    Sanitation System
    FDA Preserves and Related Products
    USDA Standards and Grades

    Fresh Produce and Processed Fruits and Vegetables
    Produce Sanitation and Safety
    Background Information
    FDA Guidance for Fresh Produce
    Fresh-Cut Produce
    Guide to Produce Farm Investigations
    Guide to Traceback of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Implicated in Epidemiological Investigations
    Tomatoes: Safety Practices for Vegetable Commodities
    Tomatoes: Open-Field Production

    Sanitation and Safety of Processing Fruits and Fruit Juices
    Product Standards and Grades
    Time/Temperature Factors
    FDA’s Fruit Juice HACCP
    FDA Establishment Inspections

    Sanitation and Safety in the Manufacture of Pickles and Sauerkraut
    Sanitation Premises
    Acidified Foods
    Pickles Manufacture
    Pickles and Relish: FDA Analytical Methods
    Pickles: FDA Establishment Inspection
    Canned Sauerkraut
    USDA: Sauerkraut Inspection
    Warning Letter

    Sanitation and Safety of Processing Vegetables
    Food Sanitation System
    Product Standards and Grades
    Time–Temperature Factors
    Tomatoes and Tomato Products
    Food Defect Action Levels for Vegetables and Vegetable Products

    Meat and Poultry Sanitation
    Regulatory Requirements in the Processing of Meat and Poultry in the United States
    Current Laws, Regulations, and Jurisdiction
    Sanitation Standards
    HACCP Systems
    Raw Product, Not Ground
    Mechanically Separated Product
    Raw Product: Ground
    Heat Treated but Not Fully Cooked: Not Shelf Stable
    Fully Cooked: Not Shelf Stable
    Product with Secondary Inhibitors: Not Shelf Stable
    Not Heat Treated: Shelf Stable
    Heat Treated: Shelf Stable
    Thermally Processed: Commercially Sterile

    HACCP Model for Processing Ground Meat
    Hazard Analysis of the Raw Ground Process
    Intervention Treatments for Meat Parts and Comminuted Meat
    Guidance for Minimizing Impact associated with Food Safety Hazard in Raw Ground Meat

    HACCP Model for Processing Raw Poultry
    Generic Model for Poultry Slaughter
    Generic HACCP Model for Irradiated, Raw Meat and Poultry Products

    Food Transportation and Warehousing
    Food Transportation: Sanitation, Safety, and Security
    Background Information
    Problems and Preventive Controls
    Food Safety and Security Concerns
    Guidance for Food Safety Measures
    Guidance for Food Security Measures
    Guidance for Specific Modes of Transportation
    Establishment, Maintenance, and Availability of Records

    Warehousing Sanitation and Safety
    Basic Requirements for Sanitation in a Food Processing Plant
    Procedures and Controls
    Implementation Plan
    Check Points and Additional Guides
    Case Study: Inspecting Incoming Food Materials and RawIngredients
    FDA CPG: Food Storage and Warehousing-Adulteration-Filth
    FSIS-USDA: Food Security in a Warehouse
    FDA Warning Letters for Deficiencies in Food Storage Warehouses
    An FDA Inspection Report Form

    Food Service
    Primer on Sanitation and Safety in the Food Service Industries
    Retail and Food Service Industries
    Guides to Regulators and Operators
    Retail and Food Service Industries: HACCP
    Food Safety Plan and HACCP
    Hazard Analysis
    Determining Risk Factors in Process Flows
    Developing a Food Safety System
    Procedural Step 1: Develop Prerequisite Programs
    Procedural Step 2: Group Your Menu Items/Products
    Procedural Step 3: Conduct a Hazard Analysis
    Procedural Step 4: Implement Control Measures in Prerequisite Programsor at CCPS in Your HACCP Plans and Establish Critical Limits
    Common Operational Steps Used in Retail and Food Service
    Procedural Step 5: Establish Monitoring Procedures
    Procedural Step 6: Develop Corrective Actions
    Procedural Step 7: Conduct Ongoing Verification
    Procedural Step 8: Keep Records
    Procedural Step 9: Conduct Periodic Validation
    Sample HACCP Tables

    Sanitation and Safety Requirements for Restaurants
    Food Care
    Food Service Personnel
    Equipment and Utensils
    Cleaning, Sanitization, and Storage of Equipment, Utensils,and Cleaning Gear
    Sanitary Facilities and Controls
    Construction and Maintenance of Physical Facilities
    Special Food Service Sanitation

    Sanitation and Safety Requirements for Retail Food Service Industries
    Food Management
    Equipment and Utensils
    Equipment and Utensils: Cleaning, Sanitization, and Storage
    Sanitary Facilities and Controls
    Physical Facilities: Construction and Maintenance

    Sanitation and Food Safety for Public Conveyances (Land, Air, Sea) in theUnited States
    FDA Regulations and Conveyance Sanitation
    CDC and Food Safety in Cruise Ship
    Equipment and Utensils
    Poisonous and Toxic Materials

    Food Workers Safety
    Food Establishment Classification and Occupational Hazards
    Food Establishment Classification
    Manufacturing Plants and Workers’ Hazard Analysis

    eTool for the Safety of Workers in Processing Poultry
    Contents of eTool for Poultry Processing Industry
    Example of Processing: Cutting and Deboning
    Description for Processing: Cutting and Deboning


    Y. H. Hui