5th Edition

Sensory Evaluation Techniques

By Gail Vance Civille, B. Thomas Carr Copyright 2016
    632 Pages 136 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    This new edition of a bestseller covers all phases of performing sensory evaluation studies, from listing the steps involved in a sensory evaluation project to presenting advanced statistical methods. Like its predecessors, Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Fifth Edition gives a clear and concise presentation of practical solutions, accepted methods, standard practices, and some advanced techniques.

    The fifth edition is comprehensively reorganized, revised, and updated. Key highlights of this book include:

    • A more intuitive organization
    • Statistical methods adapted to suit a more basic consumer methodology
    • Rearranged material to reflect advances in Internet testing
    • New time-intensity testing methods
    • New chapters on advanced sensory processes, quality control testing, advertising claims, and business challenges
    • New material on mapping and sorting, graph theory, multidimensional scaling, and flash profiling techniques
    • Explanations of theories of integrity, amplitude, and balance and blend
    • Updated appendices for spectrum method scales
    • Updated references

    Sensory Evaluation Techniques remains a relevant and flexible resource, providing how-to information for a wide variety of users in industry, government, and academia who need the most current information to conduct effective sensory evaluation and interpretations of results. It also supplies students with the necessary theoretical background in sensory evaluation methods, applications, and interpretations.

    Introduction to Sensory Techniques
    Development of Sensory Testing
    Human Subjects as Instruments
    Conducting a Sensory Study

    Sensory Attributes and the Way We Perceive Them
    Sensory Attributes
    Human Senses
    Perception at Threshold and Above

    Controls for Test Room, Products, and Panel
    Environmental Controls
    Product Controls
    Panelist Controls

    Factors Influencing Sensory Verdicts
    Physiological Factors
    Psychological Factors
    Poor Physical Condition

    Measuring Responses
    Psychophysical Theory

    Guidelines for Choice of Technique
    Define the Project Objective
    Define the Test Objective
    Integrate Project Objective and Test Objectives to Construct Test Design

    Overall Difference Tests: Does a Sensory Difference Exist between Samples?
    Unified Approach to Difference and Similarity Testing
    Triangle Test
    Duo–Trio Test
    Two-out-of-Five Test
    Same/Different Test (or Simple Difference Test)
    "A"–"Not A" Test
    Difference-from-Control Test
    Sequential Tests

    Attribute Difference Tests: How Does Attribute X Differ between Samples?
    Introduction: Paired Comparison Designs
    Directional Difference Test: Comparing Two Samples
    Specified Method of Tetrads: Comparing Two Samples on a Specified Attribute Using the Method of Tetrads
    Pairwise Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis––Comparing Several Samples in All Possible Pairs
    Introduction: Multisample Difference Tests—Block Designs
    Simple Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis: Randomized (Complete) Block Design
    Multisample Difference Test: Rating Approach—Evaluation by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
    Multisample Difference Test: BIB Ranking Test (Balanced Incomplete Block Design)—Friedman Analysis
    Multisample Difference Test: BIB Rating Test—Evaluation by Analysis of Variance

    Determining Threshold
    Applications of Threshold Determinations

    Selection and Training of Panel Members
    Panel Development
    Selection and Training for Difference Tests
    Selection and Training of Panelists for Descriptive Testing
    Panel Performance and Motivation
    Appendix 10.1 Prescreening Questionnaires
    Appendix 10.2 Panel Leadership Advice

    Descriptive Analysis Techniques
    Field of Application
    Components of Descriptive Analysis
    Commonly Used Descriptive Test Methods with Trained Panels
    Commonly Used Descriptive Test Methods with Untrained Panels
    Application of Descriptive Analysis Panel Data

    Spectrum™ Descriptive Analysis Method
    Design of the Spectrum Descriptive Method
    Myths About the Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Method
    Terminology and Lexicon Development
    Combining the Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Method with Other Measures
    Spectrum Descriptive Procedures for Quality Assurance, Shelf-Life Studies and So On
    Appendix 12.1 Spectrum Terminology for Descriptive Analysis
    Appendix 12.2 Spectrum Intensity Scales for Descriptive Analysis
    Appendix 12.3 Streamlined Approach to Spectrum References
    Appendix 12.4 Spectrum Descriptive Analysis: Product Lexicons
    Appendix 12.5 Spectrum Descriptive Analysis: Examples of Full Product Descriptions
    Appendix 12.6 Spectrum Descriptive Analysis Training Exercises

    Affective Tests: Consumer Tests and In-House Panel Acceptance Tests
    Purpose and Applications
    The Subjects/Consumers in Affective Tests
    Choice of Test Location
    Affective Methods: Qualitative
    Affective Methods: Quantitative
    Internet Research
    Using Other Sensory Methods to Uncover Insights
    Appendix 13.1 Screeners for Consumer Studies—Focus Group, CLT, and Home Use Test (HUT)
    Appendix 13.2 Discussion Guide—Group or One-on-One Interviews
    Appendix 13.3 Questionnaires for Consumer Studies
    Appendix 13.4 Protocol Design for Consumer Studies

    Basic Statistical Methods
    Summarizing Sensory Data
    Statistical Hypothesis Testing
    Thurstonian Scaling
    Statistical Design of Sensory Panel Studies
    Appendix 14.1 Probability

    Advanced Statistical Methods
    Data Relationships
    Preference Mapping
    Treatment Structure of an Experimental Design

    Guidelines for Reporting Results
    Anatomy of the Report
    Graphical Presentation of Data
    Example Reports (Tables 16.2 through 16.4)

    Sensory Evaluation in Quality Control (QC/Sensory)
    Attribute Descriptive Methods
    Difference-from-Control Methods
    In–Out Method

    Advanced Consumer Research Techniques
    Front End of Innovation
    Sequence Mapping
    Capturing the Iconic Experience
    Consumer Cocreation
    Qualitative Use of Kano Methodology
    Benefit Perception beyond Liking: Functional, Emotional, and Health and Wellness Benefits
    Behavioral Economics
    Category Appraisals, Key Drivers Studies and Sensory Segmentation
    Ad Claims
    Additional Resources

    Statistical Tables

    Practical Sensory Problems
    Scenario 1
    Scenario 2
    Scenario 3
    Scenario 4
    Scenario 5
    Additional Qualitative References


    Gail Vance Civille is president of Sensory Spectrum, Inc., a management consulting firm involved in the sensory evaluation of foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals, paper, fabrics, personal care, and other consumer products. She has trained several flavor and texture descriptive profile panels in her work with industry, universities, and government. She has also conducted several workshops and courses in basic sensory evaluation methods as well as in advanced methods and theory. She is a founding member and former chair of the Society of Sensory Professionals, and has published several articles on general sensory methods as well as sophisticated descriptive flavor and texture techniques.

    B. Thomas Carr is principal of Carr Consulting, a research consulting firm that provides project management, product evaluation, and statistical support services to the food, beverage, personal care, and home care industries. He has over 30 years of experience in applying statistical techniques to all phases of research on consumer products. He is a member of the US delegation to the ISO TC34/SC12, is involved in the statistical training of scientists, and has been invited by several professional organizations to speak on topics of statistical methods and statistical consulting in industry.