Cooking Innovations : Using Hydrocolloids for Thickening, Gelling, and Emulsification book cover
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Cooking Innovations
Using Hydrocolloids for Thickening, Gelling, and Emulsification




ISBN 9781439875889
Published October 9, 2013 by CRC Press
380 Pages 119 Color Illustrations

 
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Book Description

While hydrocolloids have been used for centuries, it took molecular gastronomy to bring them to the forefront of modern cuisine. They are among the most commonly used ingredients in the food industry, functioning as thickeners, gelling agents, texturizers, stabilizers, and emulsifiers. They also have applications in the areas of edible coatings and flavor release. Although there are many books describing hydrocolloids and their industrial uses, Cooking Innovations: Using Hydrocolloids for Thickening, Gelling, and Emulsification is the first scientific book devoted to the unique applications of hydrocolloids in the kitchen, covering both past uses and future innovations.

Each chapter addresses a particular hydrocolloid, protein hydrocolloid, or protein–polysaccharide complex. Starting with a brief description of the chemical and physical nature of the hydrocolloid, its manufacture, and its biological/toxicological properties, the emphasis is on practical information for both the professional chef and amateur cook. Each chapter includes recipes demonstrating the particular hydrocolloid’s unique abilities in cooking. Several formulations were chosen specifically for food technologists, who will be able to manipulate them for large-scale use or as a starting point for novel industrial formulations.

The book covers the most commonly used hydrocolloids, namely, agar–agar, alginates, carrageenan and furcellaran, cellulose derivatives, curdlan, egg proteins, galactomannans, gelatin, gellan gum, gum arabic, konjac mannan, pectin, starch, and xanthan gum. It also discusses combining multiple hydrocolloids to obtain novel characteristics. This volume serves to inspire cooking students and introduce food technologists to the many uses of hydrocolloids. It is written so that chefs, food engineers, food science students, and other professionals will be able to cull ideas from the recipes and gain an understanding of the capabilities of each hydrocolloid.

Table of Contents

Hydrocolloids—Where, Why, and When?
Introduction
Terminology
Classification
Economics
Gum Constituents and Their Effects on Processing
Functions of Hydrocolloids in Food Applications
Regulatory Aspects
References and Further Reading

Agar–Agar
Historical Background
Collection and Processing of Seaweed for Agar
Types of Agar Products
Regulatory Status and Toxicity
Structure of Agar
Agar–Agar Properties
Commercial Food Applications
Recipes with Agar–Agar
Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef
References and Further Reading

Alginates
Historical Background
Sources
Structure
Alginate Sources and Manufacture
Commercial Characteristics
Mechanism of Alginate Gelation
Applications
Recipes with Alginates
Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef
References and Further Reading

Carrageenan and Furcellaran
Introduction and Historical Background
Structure
Sources and Production
Accessible Types of Gum
Regulatory Aspects
Molecular Weight and Consistency
Solutions and Gels
Reactivity with Proteins
Applications
Recipes with Carrageenan and Furcellaran
Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef
References and Further Reading

Cellulose Derivatives
Introduction
Manufacture
Properties of Methylcellulose (MC) and Methylhydroxypropylcellulose
(MHPC)
Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC)
Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC)
Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)
Food Applications
Recipes with Cellulose Derivatives
Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef
References and Further Reading

Curdlan
Historical Background
Production
Chemical Structure
Regulatory Status and Toxicity
Functional Properties
Commercial Food Applications
Recipes with Curdlan
Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef
References and Further Reading

Egg Proteins
Historical Background
The Structure of the Egg
The Composition of the Egg
Essential Nutrients and Value of Eggs
Egg Yolk Emulsions
Egg White Foams
Gels
Recipes with Eggs
Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef
References and Further Reading

Galactomannans
Introduction
Locust Bean Gum: Sources, Manufacturing, and Legislation
Guar Gum: Sources, Processing, and Regulatory Status
Tara Gum
Fenugreek Gum
Galactomannan Structure
Gum Solution Properties
Gelation and Interactions of Galactomannans
Stability
Food Applications
Recipes with Galactomannans
Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef
References and Further Reading

Gelatin
Historical Background
Definitions
Manufacture and Sources
Physical Properties
Technical Data
Food Uses and Applications
Regulations
Recipes with Gelatin
Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef
References and Further Reading

Gellan Gum
Historical Background
Structure and Chemical Composition
Source, Production Supply, and Regulatory Status
Functional Properties
Mechanism of Gelation and Gellan-Gum Gel Properties
Comparison to Other Hydrocolloids
Food and Other Applications
Recipes with Gellan Gum
Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef
References and Further Reading

Gum Arabic
Introduction
Common Names, Economic Importance, and Distributional Range
Gum Arabic Production
Gum Arabic Properties
Gum Chemical Characteristics
Viscosity and Acid Stability
Applications of Gum Arabic
Recipes with Gum Arabic
Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef
References and Further Reading

Konjac Mannan
Historical Background
The Plant and the Tuber
Manufacture
Structure
Technical Data
Food Applications
Recipes with Konjac Mannan
Okara Konjac Recipes
Regulatory Status
Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef
References and Further Reading

Pectin
Introduction
Nomenclature
Structure
Sources and Properties
Pectin Manufacture
Commercial Availability, Specifications, and Regulatory Status
Solution Properties
Viscosity
Pectin Gel Types and Properties
Applications
Recipes with Pectin
Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef
References and Further Reading

Starch
Introduction
Varieties of Starch
Structure and Composition
Functional Properties of Starch Suspensions
Starch Pastes and Gels
Effect of Food Ingredients on Starch Functionality
Properties of Available Starches
Commercial Applications of Starches
Recipes with Starch
Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef
References and Further Reading

Xanthan Gum
Introduction
Processing
Chemical Structure
Xanthan Gum Solutions
Xanthan Gum Interactions
Food Applications
Toxicity
Recipes with Xanthan Gum
Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef
References and Further Reading

The Use of Multiple Hydrocolloids in Recipes
Synergistic Combinations
Protein–Polysaccharide Interactions: Conjugates and Complexes
Applications
Recipes with Multiple Hydrocolloids
Tips for the Amateur Cook and Professional Chef
References and Further Reading

Glossary

Alphabetical List of Hydrocolloid Manufacturers and Suppliers

Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Professor Amos Nussinovitch was born in Kibbutz Megiddo, Israel. He studied chemistry at the University of Tel Aviv, and food engineering and biotechnology at the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology. He has worked as a food engineer at several companies and has been involved in a number of R&D projects in both the United States and Israel, focusing on the mechanical properties of liquids, semisolids, solids, and powders.

He is currently in the Biochemistry and Food Science Department of the Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, where he leads a large group of researchers working on theoretical and practical aspects of hydrocolloids. Prof. Nussinovitch is the sole author of five books, the author or coauthor of numerous papers on hydrocolloids and on the physical properties of foods, and an inventor on many related patent applications.

Madoka Hirashima, Ph.D., was born in Kyoto, Japan. She studied the rheological properties of curdlan and cornstarch at the Graduate School of Human Life Science, Osaka City University. Dr. Hirashima worked at a food company as a new food developer, and then as a lecturer at several colleges. She is currently in Home Economics Education at the Faculty of Education, Mie University, where she teaches cooking as well as cooking science. She continues to study the rheological properties of polysaccharides, with a focus on the textures of starch and konjac products.

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