1st Edition

Handbook of Indigenous Foods Involving Alkaline Fermentation

Edited By Prabir K. Sarkar, M.J. Robert Nout Copyright 2015
    629 Pages 105 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Handbook of Indigenous Foods Involving Alkaline Fermentation details the basic approaches of alkaline fermentation, provides a brief history, and offers an overview of the subject. Devoted exclusively to alkaline-fermented foods (AFFs), this text includes contributions from experts from around the globe. It discusses the diversity of indigenous fermented foods involving an alkaline reaction, as well as the taxonomy, ecology, physiology, and genetics of predominant microorganisms occurring in AFFs.

    Presented in nine chapters, the book explains how microorganisms or enzymes transform raw ingredients into AFFs. It discusses the safety aspects of AFFs, and considers the challenges associated with the technological aspects in modernizing AFFs. It stresses the significance of the microbiological and biochemical processes in the fermentations, as well as the factors that influence the development of the characteristic microbiota, and the biochemical and organoleptic changes induced by them. It also proposes solutions, discusses the value of AFFs and related dominant microorganisms, and assesses the future of AFFs.

    The authors highlight commonly known foods and beverages of plant and animal origin. They provide insight into the manufacture, chemical and microbiological composition, processing, and compositional and functional modifications taking place as a result of microbial and enzyme effects. The text examines safety, legislation, traditional and industrialized processes, as well as new product development, and opportunities for developing commodities from Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East. In addition, it also assesses the value of food processing by-products, biotechnology, and engineering of solid-state processes, modern chemical and biological analytical approaches to safety, and health and consumer perception.

    • Focuses on how fermentation of food remains an important aspect of food processing
    • Describes how fermentation of food contributes to its preservation
    • Details how fermented food gets its flavor from microbial and enzymatic modifications of food components such as sugars, fats, and proteins

    Handbook of Indigenous Foods Involving Alkaline Fermentation offers insight into the microbiology and chemistry of the fermentation processes. This book serves graduate students and researchers of food science and technology, nutrition and dietetics, food microbiology, and related areas.


    Prabir K. Sarkar and M. J. Robert Nout


    Diversity of Plant-Based Food Products Involving Alkaline Fermentation

    Legume Products

    Toshirou Nagai, Li-Te Li, Yan-Li Ma, Prabir K. Sarkar, M. J. Robert Nout, Kun-Young Park, Ji-Kang Jeong, Jang-Eun Lee, Ggot-Im Lee, Cherl-Ho Lee, Ekachai Chukeatirote, Hongjiang Yang, Olusola Bandele Oyewole, Adewale Olusegun Obadina, Paulin Azokpota, Abiodun Isiaka Sanni, Folarin Anthony Oguntoyinbo, and Yemisi Adefunke Jeff-Agboola,

    Non-Legume Products

    Maureen-Theodore Chinwe Ojinnaka, Labia Irène Ivette Ouoba, Abiodun Isiaka Sanni, Folarin Anthony Oguntoyinbo, Kris Herawan Timotius, Susan Ray Brown, and Genevieve Bardwell

    Diversity of Animal-Based Food Products Involving Alkaline Fermentation

    Fish Sauces and Pastes

    Wonnop Visessanguan and Siriporn Chaikaew

    Shellfish Products

    Wonnop Visessanguan and Siriporn Chaikaew


    Ggot-Im Lee and Cherl-Ho Lee


    Soottawat Benjakul and Palanivel Ganesan


    Microorganisms Predominating in Alkaline-Fermented Foods

    Bacillus and Related Genera

    Charles Parkouda, Bréhima Diawara, and Kwaku Tano-Debrah

    Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Donatien Kaboré and Charles Parkouda


    Line Thorsen, Elmer Nayra Kpikpi, and Lene Jespersen


    Quality Aspects of Alkaline-Fermented Foods

    Sensory Characteristics

    Paulin Azokpota

    Nutritional Value

    Shawn Mark Somerset

    Health-Promoting Effects

    Paulin Azokpota, Toshirou Nagai, Li-Te Li, Yan-Li Ma, and Chanya Chuenarrom


    Safety Aspects of Alkaline-FermentedFoods

    Ggot-Im Lee and Cherl-Ho Lee

    Alkaline-Fermented Foods Are Generally Safe

    Hazards in Alkaline-Fermented Foods

    Control of Hazards



    Challenges Associated with Technological Aspects for Modernization of Alkaline-Fermented Foods

    Modulation of Product Chains

    Anita R. Linnemann

    Development of Starter Cultures

    Egon Bech Hansen

    Hygienic Design Aspects of Alkaline Fermentation Processes

    Huub L. M. Lelieveld

    Food Packaging

    Jenneke K. Heising and Matthijs Dekker


    Value-Added Products from Alkaline-Fermented Foods or from Microorganisms Predominating Therein

    Alkaline Proteases

    C. Ganesh Kumar

    Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid

    Toshirou Nagai


    Philippe Jacques and Aly Savadogo

    Short-Chain Volatile Organic Acids and Various Other Organic Compounds

    Maureen-Theodore Chinwe Ojinnaka

    Flavor Additives

    Maureen-Theodore Chinwe Ojinnaka


    Future of Alkaline-Fermented Foods for Traditional Markets

    M. J. Robert Nout and Prabir K. Sarkar



    M. J. Robert Nout and Prabir K. Sarkar




    Prabir K. Sarkar has been a professor at the University of North Bengal, India since 2000. He earned his bachelor’s (1972), master’s (1974), and doctoral (1981) degrees in botany, with specialization in microbiology, from the University of Burdwan, India. He carried out his postdoctoral research on food fermentation at the University of Reading in the UK, Queensland Health Scientific Services Laboratory in Australia, and Wageningen University in the Netherlands. He has 34 years of experience in teaching microbiology, and has published approximately 70 research articles in impact journals. His research focus is fermentation and microbiological safety of indigenous foods.

    M. J. Robert Nout graduated as a food technologist at Wageningen University, the Netherlands, in 1970. His interest in food fermentation evolved during his career of university teaching and research in several African and Asian countries. He defended his doctor’s thesis at Wageningen University in 1981 on the topic of "indigenous fermented beverages of Kenya." Since 1983, he was an associate professor at Wageningen University, a visiting professor at China Agricultural University since 2005, and has published over 250 scientific articles. Retired since 2011, he is now a consultant in the area of food fermentation research.

    "The book is directed at an academic and professional audience—graduate students, researchers in food science and technology, and those working in nutrition, dietetics, food microbiology, and related disciplines. Highly recommended for academic libraries."