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Food Process Engineering

Safety Assurance and Complements

- Available for pre-order. Item will ship after May 27, 2020

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## Book Description

Food Process Engineering: Safety Assurance and Complements pursues a logical sequence of coverage of industrial processing of food and raw material where safety and complementary issues are germane. Measures to guarantee food safety are addressed at start, and the most relevant intrinsic and extrinsic factors are reviewed, followed by description of unit operations that control microbial activity via the supply of heat supply or the removal of heat. Operations prior and posterior are presented, as is the case of handling, cleaning, disinfection and rinsing, and effluent treatment and packaging, complemented by a brief introduction to industrial utilities normally present in a food plant.

**Key Features:**

- Overviews the technological issues encompassing properties of food products
- Provides comprehensive mathematical simulation of food processes
- Analyzes the engineering of foods at large, and safety and complementary operations in particular, with systematic derivation of all relevant formulae
- Discusses equipment features required by the underlying processes

## Table of Contents

**1. Safety assurance**

Preservation

Introduction

Product and process overview

Food-borne agents of disease

Nonconventional hurdle strategies

Ultrahigh pressure

Pulsed electric fields

Pulsed magnetic fields

Pulsed light

Power ultrasound

Mathematical simulation

Le Châtelier’s principle

Joule & Thomson’s coefficient

Pressure and temperature effects

Water activity

Thermodynamic approach

Surface adsorption

Capillary condensation

Osmotic pressure

pH

Buffer range

Buffer stability

Thermal resistance of enzymes and microorganisms

Decimal reduction time

Thermal resistance factor

Rationale of thermal processing

Blanching, pasteurization and sterilization

Introduction

Product and process overview

Blanching

PasteurizationSterilization

mathematical simulation

Thermal death time

Direct heating of uniform temperature solid(s)

Indirect heating of uniform temperature solid(s)

Direct heating of uniform temperature liquid

Chilling

Introduction

Product and process overview

Mathematical simulation

Chilling of fresh produce

Freezing/storage/thawing

Introduction

Product and process overview

Freezing

Storage

Thawing

Mathematical simulation

Freezing pattern

Fast freezing and thawing

Slow freezing and thawing

Irradiation

Introduction

Product and process overview

Mathematical simulation

Radioactive decay

Penetration depth

**2. Complementary operations**

Handing, cleaning, disinfection, rinsing and effluent treatment

Introduction

Product and process overview

Pre-process handling

Hygienic design of equipment

Cleaning, disinfection and rinsing of equipment

Process handling

Post-process handling

Water supply and effluent treatment

Mathematical simulation

Cleaning

Spraying

Sprinkling

Rinsing

Soaking

Disinfection

Packaging

Introduction

Product and process overview

Natural fibers

Paper and board

Synthetic polymers

Flexible films

Rigid and semirigid containers

Metals

Glass

Modified atmosphere packaging

Frozen food packaging

Edibility/biodegradability of packaging materials

Nanotechnology in packaging materials

Active packaging

Intelligent packaging

Filling, sealing and labelling

Filling

Sealing

Labelling

Economic and environmental impact

Mathematical simulation

Transparent packaging

Permeable packaging

Active packaging

Intelligent packaging

**3. Industrial utilities**

Introduction

Product and process overview

Steam engine

Refrigerator

Gas compressor

Electrical engines and circuitry

Automatic control

Mathematical simulation

Fuel combustion

Rankine’s power cycle

Vapor compression/expansion refrigeration cycle

Vapor absorption/stripping refrigeration cycle

Chilled water production

Liquid nitrogen production

Solid carbon dioxide production

Gas compression

Electrical apparatuses

Motors

Transformers

Cables

Electrical resistance

Thermal resistance

Mechanical resistance

Sensors, controllers and actuators

** 4. Bibliography and useful mathematical formulae**

Bibliographic references and further reading

Algebra

Averages

Asymptotic behaviors

Absolute value

Definition

Properties

Impulse function

Step function

Exponential function

Definition

Neper’s number

Properties

Euler’s form of complex numbers

Logarithmic function

Definition

Properties

Hyperbolic functions

Definition

Relationships between hyperbolic functions

Trigonometric functions

Definition

Fundamental theorem of trigonometry

Relationships between trigonometric functions

SeriesArithmetic series

Geometric series

Algebra of polynomials

Products of binomials

Newton’s binomial theorem

Multinomial theorem

Factorization of polynomial

Ruffini’s rule

Splitting of polynomial

Matrices

Definition

Addition of matrices

Multiplication of scalar by matrix

Multiplication of matrices

Transposal of matrix

Inversion of matrix

Determinants

Definition

Laplace’s theorem

Properties

Inversion of matrix

Power of a matrix

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

Characteristic polynomial

Cayley & Hamilton’s theorem

Routh & Hurwitz’s theorem

Vectors

Definition

Addition of vectors

Multiplication of scalar by vector

Scalar multiplication of vectors

Vector multiplication of vectors

Tensors

Definition

Dyadic multiplication of vectors

Double scalar multiplication of tensors

Scalar multiplication of tensors

Solution of systems of linear algebraic equations

Cramer’s rule

Explicitation

Solution of algebraic quadratic equation

Calculus

Limits

Definition

Basic theorems

Diferential

Total derivative

Definition

Rules of differentiation

Rolle’s theorem

Lagrange’s theorem

Cauchy’s theorem

L’Hôpital’s rule

Partial derivatives

Definition

Young’s and Schwartz’s theorems

Euler’s theorem

Implicit differentiation

Taylor’s series expansion

Univariate function

Bivariate function

Vector calculus

Definition of nabla

Properties

Multiple products

Conversion to curved systems of coordinates

Indefinite integral

Definition

Properties

Rules of integration

Definite single integral

Definition

Properties

Rules of integration

Leibnitz’s formula

Definite multiple integral

Line integral

Double integral

Fubini’s theorem

Leibnitz’s theorem

Green’s theorem

Gauss’s theorem

Fourier’s series expansion

Analytical geometry

Straight line

Conical lines

Length and curvature of plain curve

Area of plane surface

Outer area of revolution solid

Volume of revolution solid

Optimization of functions

Univariate and unconstrained

Bivariate and unconstrained

Univariate and constrained

Euler & Lagrange’s equation

Unconstrained kernel

Constrained kernel

Pontryagin’s principle

Fourier’s transform

Laplace’s transform

Definition

Properties

Inversion

Lambert’s W function

Gamma function

Incomplete gamma function

Bessel’s functions

Exponential-integral function

Solution of ordinary differential equations

First order with separable variables

Homogeneous first order

Linear first order

Bernoulli’s equation

Incomplete, linear second order

Bessel’s equation

Legendre’s equation

Chebyshev’s equation

Incomplete, nonlinear second order

Complete, linear second order

Constant-coefficient, linear higher order

Euler’s equation

Statistics

Discrete probability distributions

Absolute and centered moments

Moment-generating function

Normal distribution

Probability density function of population

Probability density function of samples

Central limit theorem

Properties

Probability cumulative function of population

Linear regression

Parameter estimation

Parameter inference

## Author(s)

### Biography

**F. Xavier Malcata** is Full Professor at Department of Chemical Engineering of University of Porto (Portugal), and chair of Integrated Masters Course on Bioengineering. He held previous appointments as Dean of the Colege of Bioengineering of the Portuguese Catholic University, President of the Portuguese Society of Biotechnology, and Chief Executive Officer of several non-profit University/Industry Extension Associations and Startup/Spinoff Technological Incubators. He was the recipient of several international honors and awards, including Elmer Marth Educator Award in 2011 by the International Association of Food Protection, and William V. Cruess award for excellence in teaching in 2014 by the Institute of Food Technologists (USA). He authored 12 books, and published more than 400 papers in top-ranking refereed journals that received 13,000+ citations by the peers.